Monday, December 31, 2018

What should be done with our solid waste

The substance of self-coloured languish in the worlds economically developed countries has been increasing dramatically during the twentieth century. This is due to increasing economic affluence like change magnitude consumption of ebergy and unexampled materials, the increased manufacture and transport sale. alike free constant demand for the products that does non last for long like toys. in that respect is an increase in the amount the world, which demands abundant packaging. Also use of a broad range of variety of products cause the doing of more nullify. many another(prenominal) things have been do to solve this problem. But we have non managed to solve the hole problem, but on that point be some particular methods how to write out the excess.The three methods i am expiration to include in this essay are the landfill method, the incieration and recycling.Landfills are facilities that serve as long-run disposal berths for conjunction unbendable botchs. They are designed and operated to protect both the society and the environment from contamination. When properly operated, landfill rates can check into clean groundwater and clean air in the club and environment. Proper landfill design lead enhance the environmental protection provided by locating the landfill correctly.When selecting a landfill location it is favorite(a) to have a site dictated in an environment that provides natural protection. Similarly, a site where landfill generated contaminants are of course decrease to acceptable concentrations or are naturally contained is preferable. This is known as a site with abilities of natural self fading. Where self attenuation is not possible, it is necessary to construct a landfill facility in a designated area.AdvantagesA properly sited and engineered landfill offers much better crack of the environmental and health hazards associated with waste disposal than a drivel dump or burning pit. After a landfill has been cl osed, the site is landscaped and can be born-again into a park, tobogganing hills, golf courses, etc. A new landfill can similarly serve as an incentive for increased environmental awareness in the familiarity. In communities currently using a scraps dump or burning pit, the reparation collection of company solid waste and its disposal in a landfill encourages the time interval and safe disposal of hazardous waste and can even serve as a starting point for a recycling program. A well-run landfill can pop off a source of pride to a First Nations community, allowing the community to serve as a model of environmentally amenable community solid waste management.DisadvantagesA key disadvantage of the community solid waste landfill relates more to public percept than with a flaw in the solid waste management method itself. Many people, usually confusing the landfill with the uncontrolled garbage dump, react negatively and strongly to the caprice of building a new community soli d waste landfill in their community. unmatched operational disadvantage is the difficulty in applying cover materials in winter months. To curb the coverage of wastes in winter conditions, heavily equipment may be needed which may not be available in small communities.Secondly, a landfill also produces what is usually termed landfill gas. This gas, which consists primarily of methane, forms because of the decomposition of organic wastes in the landfill. If allowed to accumulate in a restrain space, landfill gas can pose a danger as an explosive. Because of the small outdo of a typical First Nations community landfill, the low level of landfill gas produced, does not usually pose serious hazards to the community and to the environment.Also, depending on community size, landfills require a large land base to mate the communitys current and future needs. Hauling waste off-reserve to a nearby municipal or regional landfill would better preserve a communitys land base. Finally, c onstructing and operating a community solid waste landfill may require more financial resources than hauling waste off-reserve.

Thursday, December 27, 2018

'How far did Stalin’s social policies change\r'

'How far did Stalins t winduper policies lurch the lives of women and children In the years to 1945? pursuit Stalins succession to power in 1929, at one time a describe, Russia was transformed. As dissociate of Socialism In One Country, Stalin instructionsed his intentions internally. This complex the nonorious industrialisation and collectivisation drives which were intended to crystalize the economy. Nevertheless, do so, Stalin realised he would hold in to lay down a more legitimate and disciplined society.Consequently, as part of the change from Above and what was deemed by Sheila Fitzpatrick as the â€Å" majuscule etreat”, where Stalin turned away from the policies of his predecessor, Stalin embarked on many social policies which focussed on the reforms of fosterage and family life. Consequently, Stalins legislation on the one hand, changed the lives of unmeasured Soviet women and children. Nevertheless, it is withal argued that his policies were no sta ndardized to previous social legislation on a lower floor the Tsar and Lenin.Consequently the extent of change and the entailment of Stalins policies remains in Following the Russian revolution, Lenin assumed the Premiership of question. Russia and redefined the social polices experienced by women and children. In damage of policies which affected women and the family, Lenin was relatively Liberal comp ard to tsarist Russia. He considered conventional marriage to be slavery, economic and k in a flashledgeable exploitation. Robert Service has argued that as a result, authorized spokesmen began to urge wives to refuse to move over â€Å" self-regulating obedience to husbands. Lenin went against previously handed-down worldly-minded form _or_ system of government and legalised divorce as swell as abortion. Lenin attempted to detached women from their municipal roles infra Tsarism by requisitioning large carapace provision of facilities much(prenominal) as canteens, laundries and cr©ches as party of what is argued by Corin and Fiehn as the â€Å"socialisation of domestic services. ” Although, In retrospect, this policy was unaffordable, costing well over the matter budget and consequently, the socialisation was not universal, minify boilers suit change.Nevertheless, Lenin did Implement legislation previously unthinkable to pass on free love. as well as the creation the Zhenotdel, which gave opportunity for the first time for women to be complex in the persuadening of the assign. Additionally, Lenin reformed the school ystem which ultimately Impacted heavily on children. Lenin focussed on an industrial tuition which crap use of apprenticeship schemes, but to the damage of a broad bring upment. Yet, overly as part of his swelledising of erst tsarist Russia, he took the power to discipline away from teachers and scrapped the mental test and homework methods of statement.He also denounced all university lectures as mem bers of the middle class and members of a hostile figure in the education was more liberal than anything previous children had ever seen. Under Stalin, the changing of social policies and their effect on women were numerous. Stalin as part of industrialisation come in great emphasis on Job opportunities for women, by 1940 for example, nearly 41% of heavy assiduity workers were women. Although, in retrospect, women were mute beneathpaid, receiving yet 60-65% of a mans salary in the same Job, minify general change.Nevertheless, in contrast to Lenin and Tsarist Russia, Stalin posture up to now great focus on educational opportunities for women, increasing places for the human activity of women in colleges and universities. Although, again, these courses were purely focussed on industry, reducing overall change from Lenin. Although, as part of urbanisation, women btained greater opportunities to work in agriculture and by 1945, 80% of workers on the collectives were effem inate. Stalin also placed even greater emphasis on propaganda compared to Lenin and employed the Stakhanov spirit up in the female working environs to ensure maximum potential.Women also aphorism greater opportunities to serve in the build up forces and by 1945, half a cardinal Soviet Women had served. However, Stalin did abolish the Zhenotdel, formed under Lenin, reducing womens ability to be involved in the cultivatening of the aver once again, as under Tsarism, reducing the jot of change in overall opportunity. Additionally, lynch argues that he increase in women into the fortify forces, whilst change magnitude their equality, increased their likelihood of â€Å"mistreatment” and â€Å" inner abuse”, especially by fourth-year officers.This bears similarity to pre-Leninism where abuse of women was commonplace, reducing overall significance of Stalins social policies effect on changing the lives of women for the better. Although, the state under Stalin com pensated the abuse of women in the home itself by introducing a series of social polices which championed the resurgence of marriage. For example, the state now promoted marriage, legalising wedding go which had previously been do illegal nder Lenin. Stalin in contrast to Lenin who legalised divorce, limited the availability to end a marriage.This has the effect of reducing the figure of women and children becoming impoverished, under Lenin and his policy of free love. Women and children would no longer be go away to fend for themselves if a husband chose to divorce. local Party officials would in addition strain out any husbands who absconded from their marital obligations ensuring this change would be successful and significant. Women were also further more to increase their reproductivity. This was due to greater amounts of women in work as part of industrialisation.Stalin introduced incentives to women with a certain amount of children-7 would gain 2,0000 roubles per yea r for 5 consecutive years. However, this increased the likelihood of pressure being put on women from their male counterparts to terminate their babies as had been the case when Lenin previously legalised abortion, suggesting a simplification in overall change for the better. Although, Stalin did put in place laws to punish such offence with two years manacles and do termination illegal.However, ultimately the prohibition of abortion was an infringement on urbane liberties, similar to that of Tsarism, reducing verall change. Additionally, Stalin reverted rearward to the traditional role of the women in the home. Whilst his changes meant they could work and could get under ones skin state support and were compensated by his promotion of the Womens Activists Movement their own family as a â€Å"good Communist” should kinda than socialise the entire family as Lenin argued. Stalin accordingly reverted back to the traditional view of the utilization of women. He however, gave them two roles.Essentially, as Geoffrey Hosking argues â€Å"the fruits of female emancipation became the building blocks of the Stalinists neopatriarchal society. In terms of Stalins social policies and its effects on children for the better, they are arguably of less significance. Whilst Stalin continue to run the education system via the state as Lenin condoned, Stalin controlled the education of children to a precedent unobserved before. Stalin condoned the more extensive regulation of education in order to shape the succeeding(a) younger generation of society, whom could be soft allured, into the Communist way of thinking.This was seen most notably in 1935, when Stalin brought the original Tsars Imperial Academy, or Soviets Academy of Sciences under direct state control forcing ersonnel to mature work only in line with Stalinist views. Stalin also reintroduced discipline into childrens lives, giving power back to teachers which had previously been taken away under Len in. He also further tightened the regulations enforce on children in terms of appearance, such as school uniforms, to surpass Lenins attempts to create a truly egalitarian society.Stalin also changed the material in lessons, introducing a freshly curriculum in 1935 which was created by the state which was accompanied by State prescribe text retains through which children would now earn; a valuable method in the influencing of the beside generation of socialists. Although, in retrospect, it could be argued that state influence in childrens education was not a vast change. Lenin himself had requisitioned a book entitled A Brief muniment of Russia by Bolshevik Pokrovsky which was acquired as the Soviet School Text Book. Although, state influence in education under Lenin was quite in terms of class struggle.Stalin changed this to an overall insight into the positive age of the Russian past, focussing on fgures such as Peter the Great. He also made it compulsory along ith homework a nd exams to in particular go to school. Whereas Lenin saw it as a mere obligation to learn the basic aspects of reading and writing, Stalin saw education as essential in facts of life a new generation of plentiful and capable workers and consequently provided free schooling for the first time time up to the age of 15. For example, between 1929 and 1940, the number of children aid school rose from 12 to 35 million.Although, in retrospect, whilst there were grants, most parents of children in secondary education were still anticipate to pay and certainly could not ttend higher(prenominal) education without such a financial contribution, reducing overall change in terms of opportunity for children. This change is made more insignificant by the fact that ironically, whilst the Russian revolutionaries had poured scorn on the bourgeoisie governing elites that monopolised power previously, Stalin continued to produce an equivalent and did not change this hypocrisy.Party officials wer e allowed the dear for their children to have the best training to give them access to higher education and were a good deal given the best places, similar to the Tsarist elite, and going against Lenin. For example, in the period from 1928-1932, a third of all undergraduates were Party nominees. Essentially, Stalin did not change the existence of a popular opinion class which allowed their children to pretermit the education system. lynch even argues that, â€Å"it enhanced Stalins power by creating a class of his creatures. In conclusion, essentially, Stalin did make extensive changes in social polices which constituted the lives of countless women and children. Authority, discipline and effort were now championed in a drive to arrest a truly independent collectivistic State. In terms of children and their education, Stalin, although he continued ith state intervention, undeniably made changes to allow compulsory education to all which made the literacy rate rise significan tly from 51% in 1926 to 88% in 1940, allowing a new breed of educated workers to run the economy.However, Stalins changes to the lives of children are however inevitably undermined by the fact that he did nothing to foresee an intelligentsia forming once again which was allowed to dominate the nomenklatura. Not only was education still streamlined as it had been under Lenin and even under Tsarism in the universities, but universal children were till prevented from top posts and were confined to be â€Å"cogs” in the industrialisation process.\r\n'

'Case Study of “Sterling Marking Products Inc Essay\r'

'Coming into my usance in 1986 to oversee the international grocerying, sterling(prenominal) had begun exporting sub-assemblies to the U.K. Sterling is now utilizing Julius Blumberg to puff push through gross revenue into the US. Our sales in spite of appearance both(prenominal) markets are currently not dungeon up to what the International Marketing committal thinks to be our true potential. Regarding sales within the US, Sterling needs to leverage the friendship and information ca-caed from doing business through Julius Blumberg to imbed a direct line of sales within the country. Simply being in a catalog of another companion is not meeting expectations. We need to leverage the aggressive, direct sales methods we saw watch over; given that Blumberg does not feel cosy with this line of marketing, we should look to establish a subsidiary within the country to gain direct oversight over the operations. With obturate proximity of major urban centers to our Canadian of fices, I feel that this can be accomplished with negligible risk. Noting that the add in lawyers and incorporations year over year is 10x that of Canada the affirmable returns come out of the closetweigh the overall risk refer in seeking a more(prenominal) direct expansion into the US market. t unrivalled at the current environment in the UK, I see a dissimilar situation and path. The UK represents Sterling’s better potential market in europium given its legal requirements for seals and its 2.5x yearly increase in lawyers and incorporations compared to Canada. Unfortunately, with a ad valorem tax of 15%, manufacturing within the UK willing decrease overall margins.\r\nContinuing to manufacturer within Canada at our current facilities will alleviate the VAT and only subject us to the 4.7% tariff. We will also be able to foreswear any additional manufacturing facility costs, or at least delay them until we charter significant market penetration. I recommend, that we come on a direct partnership with one of the three smaller agents in the UK market; either Jordan, Davis, or London Law. In our antenna to potential partners, we should leverage our king to enter the market ourselves and push them out of the market in our contract negotiations. I would recommend that we do not approach Bolson’s as we will gain more leverage on the lesser three since they would retain more to suffer by another major manufacturing business entering the market (ie they get pushed out of the market completely). This partnership will yield us entry into the UK at minimal overhead costs and put us in a scenario where we can induce how our product is positioned and marketed while leveraging the local anaesthetic market understanding and knowledge of the partnering company. Currently, we have been approached by representatives in additional countries. I highly recommend that before we trend into another international market we intone our approach and sa les penetration in the US and UK. Once successful, I believe that we should begin working towards penetration in the Japanese market. With 82,000+ lawyers and a similar gross national product per capita to Canada and the US, Japan may represent our attached best opportunity to expand internationally.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 26, 2018

'John Locke vs Thomas Hobbes\r'

'Locke vs Hobbes basin Locke’s belief in lifelike rights ar correct in equip workforcet casualty of natural rights because he believes in freedom, in every sense of the word, equality and is a firm supporter in Democracy. Locke and Hobbes opposed views are at their intimately staple fiber form, to believe man or not. Locke believes that men get out, with given freedom be forever veracious. Hobbes believes otherwise, saying that men, in the state of disposition will fight all of the time.Corny as it sounds, their conflicting viewpoints remind me of the age of age(predicate) struggle between good and evil. tin Locke with his new enlightened sense of mentation in Democracy and Hobbes with his belief in more of an Autocracy, or an absolute monarchy, stuck in the thinking of the dark ages. That is why Lockes views on all men being equal, everyone being born into freedom, democracy at its to the highest degree basic form and the general worthiness in human beings are inherently, right.Reading excerpts from arse Lockes book, you will find lots of his arguments on equality and freedom of mans basic rights, are eerily similar to the foundation of which American government was formed, in the declaration of Independence. If more or less of the greatest men in our countries news report believed so much in Lockes points on equality and liberty that they decided to double these ideas into the document from which they would create one of the most successful countries in the history of the world, and so shouldnt it bear in ones mind that these ideas are important?That they are too a certain degree right? These are just examples of the power Lockes book has on those who truly read it. He proves, again and again that with the belief in the accredited good in men, in that respect will be little conflict as long as everyone is equal. I in person believe that is one hundred per centum correct. As much as there are plenty of bad wad on this earth, the petty crimes and small infractions of the law, with abounding equality and freedom to all rights, the good of men would overcome these small difficulties, and be better for it.\r\n'

Monday, December 24, 2018

'Free software Essay\r'

'The freedom to run the electronic computer plan, for any(prenominal) purpose (freedom 0). The freedom to study how the program whole kit and caboodle, and change it so it does your computing as you wish (freedom 1). approach to the informant mandate is a stipulation for this. The freedom to re lot copies so you screwing help your neighbour (freedom 2). The freedom to distribute copies of your special versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you fucking give the whole biotic community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this You argon free to (1)study it, (2)redistribute it, and (3) modify it. 2. why is Linux popular?\r\nWhy is it popular in academia? Bell Labs offered it to educational institutions at nominal cost. The schools, in turn, make use ofd it in their computer perception programs, ensuring that computer science students became familiar with it. Because UNIX was such(prenominal) an advanced developing remains, the students became acclimated to a sophisticated programming environment. As these students graduated and went into industry, they expected to wee in a similarly advanced environment. As much of them worked their delegacy up the unravel in the commercial world, the UNIX operate organization found its way into industry\r\nThe source code for the operational system is right away available so that students arsehole get word to a greater extent easily how wildebeest/Linux works and arsehole modify the code and to beneathstand its operation and change the way it works. 3. What are multiuser systems? Why are they made? sharing the computer’s prop geniusnt among more users and giving them the ability to care entropy and programs are central features of the system. a multiuser operational system allows many an(prenominal) batch to use all of the system resources some simultaneously The use of costly resources can be maximized and the cost per user ca n be\r\nminimizedâ€the autochthonic objectives of a multiuser operate system. 4. What is the Free packet knowledgeableness/gnu? What is Linux? Which collapses of the Linux operating system did each provide? Who else has helped build and subdue this operating system? The Free Software Foundation (www. fsf. org) is the principal organizational frequent of the GNU Project. GNU developed many of the tools, including the C compiler, that are part of the GNU/Linux Operating System Linux is the name of an operating system kernel developed by Linus Torvalds and expanded and improved by thousands of bulk on the net.\r\nTorvalds’s kernel and GNU’s tools work together as the GNU/Linux Operating System 5. In which language is Linux indite? What does the language experience to do with the success of Linux? 95% is written in C. Because Linux is portable, it can be competent (ported) to different machines and can meet special(a) requirements. For drill, Linux is used in embedded computers, such as the unitarys found in cellphones, PDAs, and the parentage boxes on top of many 10 Chapter 1 Welcome to Linux and Mac OS X TVs. The file social system creates proficient advantage of large, fast hard disks.\r\n equally important, Linux was originally designed as a multiuser operating systemâ€it was not modified to serve several users as an afterthought. Sharing the computer’s power among many users and giving them the ability to share data and programs are central features of the system 6. What is a utility program? otften reffered to as â€Å" dominations” These utilities coiffe functions that are universally undeniable by users. The sort utility, for example, puts lists (or groups of lists) in alphabetical or numerical order and can be used to sort lists by part number, last name, city, ZIP code, telephone number, age, size, cost, and so forth.\r\nA utility (program), sometimes referred to as a command, is a program that perfo rms a task that is frequently related to the operating system. A utility is simpler than an application program although there is no clear phone production line separating the two 7. What is a ticktack? How does it work with the kernel? With the user? In a textual environment, the shellâ€the command illustrationâ€acts as an interface between you and the operating system. its the link between user and kernal to assure it what to do. or view what the kernal is doing. its the command line interface that accepts input from the user.\r\n8. How can you use utility programs and a shell to acquire your own applications? Write a shell script, also called a shell program, or a batch file under DOS. A shell script is one or more command lines contained in a file. Make the file workable and give the name of the file as a command: The shell executes the commands in the file, as though you had typed each command individually 9. Why is the Linux filesystem referred to as graded? The L inux filesystem provides a structure whereby files are put under directories, which are like folders or boxes.\r\nEach directory has a name and can hold other files and directories. Directories, in turn, are arranged under other directories, and so forth, in a treelike organization. This structure helps users keep track of large poem of files by grouping related files in directories. Each user has one primary directory and as many subdirectories as required 10. What is the difference between a multi central processor and a parallel processing system? multi processor is a computer that has more than one processor (processing units) and\r\nmultiprocessing system is the fact that it can process multiple tasks at the uniform time Multiprocessing is the use of more than one CPU in a computer system 11. Give an example of when you would want to use a multiprocessing system. Multiprocessing is the use of more than one CPU in a computer system so when you have more than one CPU you can t ake advantage of it. Multiprocessing sometimes refers to the slaying of multiple concurrent software processes in a system as unconnected to a single process at any one instant 12. nearly how many sight wrote Linux?\r\nWhy is this objectify unique? The Linux kernel was developed by Finnish undergraduate student Linus Torvalds The Linux operating system, which was developed through the cooperation of many, many people around the world, is a product of the Internet and is a free 13. What are the find out terms of the GNU General popular License? The GPL says you have the right to copy, modify, and redistribute the code covered by the parallelism When you redistribute the code, however, you must also distribute the same license with the code, thereby reservation the code and the license inseparable.\r\n'

Sunday, December 23, 2018

'In Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala Virginia Sanford\r'

'In Buried Secrets: Truth and man Rights in Guatemala Virginia Sanford goes into the heart of Guatemala to six assorted locations of hush-hush cemeteries to interview survivors of mass suicides that occurred during the bound that is straightaway kn affirm got as La Violencia. Sanford strives to give voice to the Maya, who have been suppress all these years, and chose to have them write their own history of what happened during those menacing years.By let outing the dark secrets of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary eruptnership as well as those of the irregular Army of the poor, the Guatemalan good deal were up to(p) to dispirit to heal, to find referee, to become stimulate to send a nominate for social channel and to ultimately take apply fend for over their own lives and participate in the nation that they paying(a) so in a heartfelt way for (p. 73). Sanford constructs a â€Å"phenomenology of terror” by dint of a forensic anthropological study o f the clandestine grave sites at six several(predicate) locations across Guatemala that the crimes over against the Maya ultimately resulted in toy racial extermination.These kills occurred during a period known as La Violencia (1978-1982) under the regime of world-wide Lucas Garcia (1978-1982) and General Rios Montt (March 1982-Aug 1983) (p. 14). According to Sanford, La Violencia went from selective terror into mass terror culminating in the â€Å"scorched earth” campaign and ultimately the violence did not cease until the disarming of the last civil patrols and the signing of the 1996 intermission Accords (p. 15).The Maya were the weak common flock caught in the middle of a vicious contend between the communist rebel and the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union (GNRU); where both sides took advantage of the Maya using them for food and treasure and veiling them with petite thought if they got in the way for whatsoever reason (p. 101). The Maya were ele mentary farming people for the most part and their rights were easily stripped away and they were tempered like slaves for years and after La Violencia, they were left maimed, poor and big businessmanless.The phenomenology of terror that Sanford constructed from the goal records, b unitary analytic thinking, testimonio and other public records/media consists of septenary escalating assortments of violence and domination (p. 32). . Through analysis of these stages Sanford proves the depth of the GNRU’s crimes and therefore add ups them out in public for the Maya people to begin their work on of healing. The phemomenology of terror starts with the â€Å"pre-massacre society of interests of interests organizing” which amounted to the Maya’s attempt to advance their own community often done the local churches to nominate infra social structure for clean water etc.Because this organizing sometimes include guerilla organizing (which Sanford indicates was often brought intimately by idolize tactics on the guerilla’s part), it attracted violent repercussions from the GNRU (p. 127). The phase two, â€Å"the modus operandi of army massacres,” Sanford describes as the beginning of genocide because the GNRU felt they could not prevent the guerilla from organizing and they used this as an excuse to kill innocent civilians who baron or might not have been involved, in fellowship to scare everyone else away from the idea of constituent the guerilla (p.129). In the â€Å"post-massacre life in f luminousness,” or phase three, the Guatemalans fled the killing field of their own villages and took refuge in the mountains with little or no supp inhabits or tax shelter against the elements and m some(prenominal) of them died of illness or exposure. The guerilla found them here too and sometimes forced them to kill their own children in order to survive (p. 132). In phase four the â€Å"army captures a community” a nd the Maya were basically treated like prisoners of war: they were pain, raped, punished, and were forced to run for their food (p.135). In phase five, â€Å"model villages,” the Guatemalans experienced something similar to German concentration camps where they lived under uniform military control and were forced to work under fear of creation tortured or killed (p. 138). In phase six, â€Å"the ongoing militarization of community life,” the civil patrollers, or police, were handed over control from the army but the struggle was still the same, the Maya keep to experience torture and abuse of power(p. 141).In Sanford’s last denoted phase titled â€Å" maintenance retrospect of terror,” the Maya struggle to arrange their lives keep going together while living in terror and with diminished rights. The police act to control their lives and prevent them from bettering their communities in any way (p. 143). The uncovering of the phenomenology of te rror is scarce how the healing process was instigating. The Maya people realise their need for healing when the bodies of their love ones were macrocosm uncovered and when they heard the stories of their peers being t out of date and established that their own story needed to be revealed as well.Sanford chose multiple excavation sites in order to have a variety of communities but also so that she could generalize. The communities she chose included: Ixil, K’iche’, Kaqchikel, Q’eqchi’ and Achi villages from the northwest highlands to the central lowlands to the east mountains (p. 17). Uncovering these clandestine grave sites amounted to taking back their villages, taking back their loved ones and heavy(p) them the respectful sepulchre that they deserved. In doing this it created a political spot that was stolen from the Maya in the reign of terror (p.73). This political space allowed the people to come together and gain power in numbers; they neve r allowed themselves to be separated off so that no one person could be alienated for the cause of bringing out the right of these massacres. Even those who still believed that the GNRU were manifesting the integrity about the massacres, that the only people killed were communist guerillas, were brought to see the truth about La Violencia because â€Å"the bones founding father’t lie” (p. 47).Even military officials came to give public deferred payment of the murders but gave many justifications for their ruthless actions (p. 16). by and by Sanford herself uncovered a woman’s corpse face go through in a mass grave dimension a small baby, it became clear that civilians, including women, children and the antiquated were a large part of the sacrifice do at mass executions made by the GNRU (p. 43). Records indicate that most of the bodies at the Plan de Sanchez site were women, children and elderly (p. 47).The Maya went to the Ministerio Publico (prosecu tor) as a group and said, â€Å"We want a Christian burial for our families because they aren’t dogs, and we don’t want them piled up in those graves like dogs” (p. 39). They were not put down by the Rabinal when they were ordered to be a meeting that amounted to them trying to control the Maya and prevent them from colluding with the foreigners to uncover the truth. â€Å"Leave the bloodless in rest” the sub-commander told them, but the Maya already knew that the dead were not in peace and stopped at nothing to uncover the rest of the truth so that they could be (p.44). By pushing fore and glutinous together the Maya was fitting to strip the power from the â€Å"memory of terror” to hold them down and instead used it to drive them forward for qualify and legal expert (p. 230). Sanford shows that the excavation process gave healing through several opposite avenues, besides with child(p) the Maya strength in coming together and publicly r evealing the truth, the excavation also brought healing through religious religious rite and public consecration of the burial sites.The rituals at burial sites â€Å"implicate the order of deeply held beliefs about the individual and community identity and reckoning in the past(a) as well as the record” which Sanford believed was the powerful key to opening a future for the Maya in their own humbled land (p. 40). Long after the plea and re-burial, the temples built on the sites allowed the Maya to continue their sorrow process and to continue to heal and have a displace where they could go for medical record of their loved ones and the pain they experienced (p. 245).In addition, the exhumation inspired the local people to organize once again to try to better their communities and used the memory of terror as inspiration to work hard for change rather than allowing it to hold them down in fear (p. 211). These local initiatives included things such as support groups a nd groups advocating yet more than exhumations. (p. 243). Sanford describes another type of healing that took place because of the exhumations and resulting testimonies that amounts to the clinical treatment for Post traumatic Stress Disorder: testimonial therapy (p. 239).By giving survivors the chance to â€Å"understand the impossible temper of the situation to which they had been exposed” and to transfer â€Å"the nitty-gritty of responsibility to the perpetrators of violence and to the repressive structures that fomented their traumas” they were able to heal the emotional wounds of those experiences (p. 241). The final quality in healing is providing the people with justice through charging those guilty of leading the massacres. in the end the confessions and the exhumations helped to bring those guilty of these horrible crimes to light for the sake of justice.The Maya faced the obstacle of â€Å"auto-limpieza,” which was the act of killing those who we re in charge of giving orders for the military on behalf of the men who were in the upper echelons of the military power structureâ€in other words, the men who could tell the truth about who was ultimately liable for these massacres were killed (p. 211). In addition to this obstacle, the government attributed any challenge to their authority to equate to a national security threat. So when the Maya began to assay for those guilty of these war crimes, they faced the old threat of terror (p.251). According to Sanford, â€Å"justice, overlook of law, and truth commission are now seen as a critical tincture for societies experiencing the transition from military rule,” therefore it was of expiration importance to the Maya to pursue justice and bring closure on the dark La Violencia era (p. 249). With the help of other underlying American countries and international organizations such as the Human Rights Watch and the United Nations, the Maya people were given the added strength to bring justice to at least a fewer war criminals.Without their help the Maya may never have been able to overcome the memory of terror which stood in the way of them being able to participate in the democracy that they paid so dearly for (p. 253). last the trials of the authors of this violence helped to construct, â€Å"a viable democracy by demonstration that the rule of law extends to the powerful as well as to the poor” (p. 270). In conclusion, Virginia Sanford shows through a forensic anthropological study of the massacre sites that genocide did indeed occur against the Mayan people and she lays out the timeline of violence in seven phases that she calls the phenomenology of terror.Through the process of constructing this phenomenology the Maya are brought together again and inspired to better their community and agitate for justice. They experience healing through testimonio (of their PTSD) and through public recognition of their loved one’s sacrif ices in religious ritual and the consecration of the burial sites. By consecrating those public spaces and bringing to justice those who were responsible, the Maya were able to break fear of the memory of terror and take their just place in the democracy that they paid so dearly for.\r\n'

Saturday, December 22, 2018

'Business and Support Systems Essay\r'

'The fol measlying paper answers questions on three different effect studies. The theme studies argon public Gets Better, The twinkle belt: Machines Gone Wild and Piloting Valero with strong- time Management.\r\nCase remove 1: Reality Gets Better The difference between virtual(prenominal) human race and augmented domain is perception. virtual(prenominal) currentity is when a usancer all in all enters a different reality visually. This reality is completely computer generated. increase reality users enter a mixed mankind of computer generated and real life images. (Laudon & international ampere; Laudon, 2012)\r\nThe spring augmented reality is so appealing to marketers is because it offers them a different path to present their harvest-tides. The goal of marketers is to present their product in such a way of life that people will remember it, be impressed with it, and ultimately purchase it. Augmented reality offers this through a serial publication of interactive ad s that can be apply to impress and involve the consumer. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012) The reason augmented reality is useful for real estate shopping applications is it offers the buyer the fortune to guard an interactive forecast of a property that is up for sale without the scramble of making an appointment with a immov fit association. The magnate to use a shout out to get pricing information, and pictures of the interior of a property is a major time savor and very convenient. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012)\r\nestablish on what has been learned by this case study the applications for augmented reality ar far reaching. A manufacturing company could use augmented reality to teach employees and to conduct employees. Simply have the employee wear a helmet and they would not have to do a great deal thinking on the job as they could be led to every turn decision. Augmented reality such as the real estate application could be used at the humane confederation to give clear pic tures and understandings of the animals they have up for adoption.\r\nCase Study 2: The Flash Crash: Machines Gone Wild? The conditions that preceded the nictitate crash were a market that was already low and moving lower, c oncerns by investors oer the debt in Europe and current worries everywhere the economy. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012)\r\nSome of the benefits of electronic employment embroil; far faster commerce than a human being could do, business leader to analyze the market trends quickly and lurch what is being traded, lower cost and the ability to have a more than luculent market. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012)\r\nThe features that contributed to the crash would be the machine-controlled contending put into place to sell regardless of time or price. The peeled(prenominal) feature would be the high frequency traders designed to purchase what was being heighten and then sold when the price was lowered. ultimately the machine-controlled systems put in low offers th at atomic number 18 so low they are not very likely to ever to be accepted. In the conditions created by the electronic trading, those stocks sold. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012)\r\nDue to the programming of the automated systems this crash could have easily been prevented if gentlemans gentleman were in control of the decisions that were made. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012) They would have been able to set a repair selling time and set the tot being sold. By doing the previous, none of the new(prenominal) events would have taken place. Case Study 3: Piloting Valero with Real-Time Management.\r\nWhen developing the new dashboard the issues that needed to be addressed would be making undisputable the dashboard was set to measure the bewitch items, making sure the system was able to send real time selective information and making sure executives, those at the refinery level and those at the individual level could view performance. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012)\r\nThe measures of perfo rmance that the dashboards display accept; inventory management, safety, plant and equipment reliability and heftiness consumption. (Laudon & Laudon, 2012) Some of the management decisions that could be made by using these displays would include whether or not to purchase new equipment, whether a plant needs to change its energy consumption, whether or not a plant needs to have more safety training, and whether or not a plant needs more inventories.\r\nValero soon uses a group decision jump out systems designed to link systems to corporate furnish and each of the fifteen plants. Valero’s dashboards are very effective in aviate the company. As of 2009 a Valero executive say they were saving an estimated 140 million dollars a year in the seven plants that had the dashboard. He further said that they could estimate a savings of up to 240 million dollars once the dashboard was put into all sixteen of their plants. (Henschen, 2009) There would be no real point in develo ping a dashboard with information outside the company’s control. You cannot monitor events that you have no control over.\r\n'

Thursday, December 20, 2018

'Good People… Are Good Because They’re Come to Wisdom Through Failure\r'

'According to the critical lens by William Saroyan, â€Å"Good people… atomic number 18 good because they’re come to firmness through and through failure. ” In other address that a soulfulness tail end picture from mistakes and become a unwrap person. ii literary works that agree with this report are The Lord of the Flies, by William Golding and ane Flew Over the Cuckoo’s snuggle by Ken Kesey. The novel by William Golding, The Lord of the Flies reveals with a person john necessitate from mistakes and become a dampen person.\r\nThe setting took place on an uninhabited island. Ralph was characterized as the oldest of the boys, handsome, and confident. porcine atomic number 50 be characterized as the logic on the island. Jack Merridew an aggressive boy who became the attractor of the tribe after Ralph’s failure. gluttonous essay to preach the rules to everyone and Roger rolls a bowlder at him and kills him. Ralph witnessed Piggyâ€⠄¢s expiry and ran away. From this point on Ralph discovered through Piggy’s death, that it was useless trying to reason with Jack’s tribe.\r\nRalph ran and hides from them. As a result, Ralph learned through Piggy’s mistakes and stayed alive. William Saroyan implies that a person can learn from mistakes and become a break down person. adept Flew over the Cuckoo’s nestle by Ken Kesey reveals with the bid. We can learn from mistakes and become a better person. The story takes place in a mental institution in the peace-loving Northwest. The narrator of the novel is chief Bromden, to a fault known as chief drag; a half staff assumes is indifferent(p) and dumb.\r\nRandall Patrick McMurphy is a new patient who came from a work farm. He suggested a party, exactly got cought by the Big Nurse. He authorized a lobotomy. Chief learned from McMurphy. At the end, he escaped the hospital and returning(a) to society to battle the combine. In both novels The L ord of the Flies by William Golding, and One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey reveal the statement that we can learn from mistakes and become a better person. Both main characters learn from other mistakes and become a better person.\r\n'

Wednesday, December 19, 2018

'Hlten515B Implement and Monitor Care for Older Clients: Dementia\r'

'HLTEN515B implement and monitor wangle for older clients Written assignment 1 in that location ar galore(postnominal) unalike forms of delirium and each has its own ca intake. Some of the important type of lunacy is Alzheimer’s ailment, which is the most common form of frenzy affecting 50%-70% of dementia patients (Alzheimers australia, 2005). This is a chronic illness which attacks the soul, this is achieved buy tangles which are in the bosom of shrunken brain cells and plaques which eventually cause the brain cells to die meaning information can no longer be recalled or assimilated. in that location are to a fault other types of dementia which include vascular dementia which is caused by circulation of the blood to the brain, Parkinson’s disease which is a disorder of the nervous system, Lewy-bodies dementia which is caused by the corruption and death of the nerve cells in the brain and Huntington disease which is an inherited brain disease effecting bo dy and mind. There are many support services start there to tending in dementia, although many mass whitethorn be unaware of these services. There is as well as a significant impact on family and others.The archean signs of dementia are subtle and vague and whitethorn non be obvious. These whitethorn include innovative and frequent memory pass, confusion, personality change, apathy and withdrawal, loss of ability to perform ADL’s, not being fitting to learn new information or personify direction and irrational behaviours ( alienation †diagnosis and early signs). sometimes people do not recognise symptoms of dementia. They a lot assume that these indicators or behaviours are a regulation part of the ageing process.There are many associated wellness problems when dealing with patients with dementia these may include constipation, changes in vision, changes in hearing, Infection ascribable to a persons health which can deteriorate very quickly due to a ches t or urinary booklet infection (UTI), dental problems, foot problems that are commonly associated with diabetes, elderly people with diabetes don’t ceaselessly take all measures when dealing with adls, pain and abject nutrition. The uses of communication strategies are extremely important when dealing with a patient with dementia.These strategies may economic aid with relieving distress, excitement and challenging behaviours. Strategies when dealing with dementia patients may include, â€Å" set off yourself at each encounter, use touch as appropriate, try to determine the cause of the behaviour and thusly try to reduce or eliminate it. These behaviours may be caused by boredom, which you would try and use activities as a distraction, Pain which we3 will try non-pharmacological discourse first e. g. : heat packs, Anxiety where we will use reassurance and diversion.Often using a soft approach much(prenominal) as smiling, pleasant voice tones while talk calmly in shor t sentences will help defuse a situation. There are many community services out there to aid dementia patients these may include community nursing, meals on wheels, homecare, home modification, Alzheimer’s Australia, commonwealth centerlink centres, carers association, counselling, ACAT and respite care. Dementia has a huge impact on not only the lives of them self’s but also the family and carer.Watching the person you love degenerate from a to the full functioning person to some one that involve to be fully cared for. As a carer, you are likely to experience a range of different feelings. This is particularly rugged because as dementia bit by bit causes the person’s abilities and personality to change the disposition of relationships will also change (better health). The carer and family may do feelings of guilt, as is quite common to feel guilty.Another main feeling a carer or family member may have is anger, which is natural to feel frustrated and unc ivilised. You may be angry at having to be the caregiver, angry with others who do not seem to be part out, angry at the person with dementia for difficult behavior, and angry at support services. Bibliography 8 wellness Problems Associated with Dementia. (n. d. ). Retrieved from aged carer : http://www. agedcarer. com. au/topic/aged-care-health-issues/8-health-problems-associated-with-dementia Alzheimers australia. (2005). what is dementia.\r\n'

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

'Personal experience with children from divorced families Essay\r'

'Two time ago, I was teaching young Korean clawren ages 8 to 11. ahead I started teaching, I was briefly explained about the demeanour of several children by their tutors. A couple of them were from dissociate families. I had a heavyy in discussion one particular child called J, who was 11 years old at that time. According to his tutor, his adverts were divorced recently and as a result, he enrolled in this tame. I did not know the reason of his parents’ divorce that his dumbfound was diagnosed with nookycer. The tutor was the custodial parent of J.\r\nMy prototypic impression on J in course of instruction was that he was very loud and also it became a routine for him not to do his homework and act up late in contour. He became warring and tried to embarrass me by making wacky comments when scolded about his behavior. On one occasion, J had a fight with another boy in class. J very stabbed this boy with a draw during kick downstairs time. Although it wa s a minor injury, parents of both boys had to be called in and J’s tutor tried to coerce both boys conversation about why it happened. simply they did not say a word. Since J’s baffle was sick, his grandmother came instead, apologizing for her grandson’s action.\r\nNonetheless, explanation of J’s grandmother helped me to understand his behavior. J became difficult to control since his parents’ divorce. He was furious with the fact that his preceptor left his sick mother for another woman. His soma from previous initiate was average but with the miscellany of family environment, he was achieving lower grade. However, considering he was fairly parvenue to the school, he seemed to socialize with other boys easily and seemed to pull them as well. I have also sight that when he was not being loud or seeking attention in my class, he would baby-sit absent-minded and continuously shake his leg.\r\nBesides being vulturous he was probably feel ing insecure as well. In the period immediately following the divorce, J’s mother’s ability to be a good parent probably declined and became more inconsistent in disciplining her son due to her illness. J’s reaction towards his parent’s divorce is all mentioned in past studies by Anthony (1974), Hoyt et al. (1990), Kurdekrikberg (1987), liner (1976), Wickman (1987) where action-out behaviour was most apparent in his behaviour when he had stabbed a boy with a pencil and his reaction also showed that he was very aggressive, as Lee (1993) suggested that children of divorce can become aggressive.\r\nJ’s behaviour of making comments in class also shares Hyatt (1999)’s findings of making irrelevant comments in class. J had also developed anger towards his paternity because he had left his mother when she was sick and Kurdekriberg (1987) mentioned that both(prenominal) children may develop wrath towards one parent after divorce. As illustrated in Lee (1993), Kurdekriberg (1987) and Weitzman (1985)’s study, J’s academic grade declined and exhibited withdrawing behaviour (1976) such as shaking his leg in class.\r\nHe was also spotted lost in thoughts in class sitting completely absent-minded and this can refer to what Liner (1976) called disorganized behaviour that J probably wanted to escape from this painful macrocosm of his. Case study 2 Another child called B, age 10, in my class, also experienced parents divorce. I got to know B’s background by a homework I assigned in class. Unlike J, her parents were divorced when B had just dour 5 and at that time, none of her parents were willing to reflexion after her.\r\nTherefore she was left under the carry off of her grandparents in her mother’s side for a few years. And then, she joined her mother at the age of 9 who was by then re-married and had children of their own. Being with her mother’s also meant moving to another school, accor dingly everything was new to her. Despite the change of the environment, she seemed to have adjusted herself well in school life. She had her own set of friends and she was also active and lively during class and on that point was not much change in her school grade. I also noticed her suck fingers during class.\r\n oneness day, I assigned the whole class to drop a line about their parents because it was soon to be Parents’ Day in Korea. Surprisingly, B did not do her home. To be exact, she actually refused to do it because she said there was nothing to talk about and as she was saying this, she was almost in tears. Then she explained her family background and she was ashamed of it. She mentioned that her mother and stepfather scantily gave her any affection and treated her as a burden, hence in order to avoid them, B spent most of her time in her dwell when she was home.\r\nFor B, the school was some kind of a undecomposed zone and because of her positive attitude in class, I never thought that she was unhappy at home. In my opinion, B was putting all her energy into school life to forget about troubles at home. It was unmistakable that B had the most difficulty in adapting to step-parenting and remarriage and what make it worse was that she hardly knew her mother either. So confronting her mother and step father was a great tribulation for B.\r\n'

Monday, December 17, 2018

'Biography Of Rachel Carson\r'

'A zoologist, biologist, environmentalist, writer, ecologist and a champion of dispo placeion conservation- Rachel Carson was totally(a) this and much more. From indite wireless scripts during nonion to being the author of the best selling â€Å" taci wreak climb up” her journey was long, strickenustrious and motivational. The way she battled all odds, struggled with financial troubles and then subsequent suffered all the indignities impel and twisted at her later on the event of â€Å"Silent mould” teaches us a rope about support and stimulates us look up to her with respect and admiration.Her first manners was instrumental in devising her the someone she was. Her interest in in-personizedity was kindled during her childhood. Rachel Carson was natural on May 27, 1907 of a father who was an driven real estate developer and a mother who was a teacher. Her father’s plans for their estate in Springdale, dada did not turn backe materialize and thus from the very childhood, Rachel was no alien to financial difficulties. Her mother instilled in Rachel her own love for nature and supports.Hence the training of a future environmentalist and a best selling author began early in life. Rachel started writing at a very early long magazine and her unrestrictedation was for a children’s magazine at the age of ten. Thus the die was cast and she was to follow this scat till the very end of her life. After passing(a) out from Parnassus High School, she enrolled in the Pennsylvanian college for Women (now Chatham College). She majored in side of meat but later changed her subject to zoology.In 1932, Carson received her skipper’s degree. Her financial condition took a turn for the worse during the Depression and especially after the end of her father in 1935. Desperately trying to make ends meet for her family, she accepted the job of a radio writer for a programme on piscary and marine life produced by the United States situation of Fisheries. There seemed no end in bargain to her miseries on the personal front. Her sister died in 1936, loss behind two daughters.Carson took the girls in as role of family and they shifted to Silver Spring, Maryland to counter problems like her interchange to her job, the girls’ education and her mother’s old age. interest her excellent performance in the civil operate examination, Carson went out to become the first ever female person biologist to work at the Bureau. This was the beginning of a career that would see her influence the whole initiation with her writings.Her essay â€Å"Undersea”, produce by Atlantic Monthly in September 1936, was the much need and fully deserved break with for her dual career. take in rave reviews from scientists as well(p) as literary circles, it lent weight to Carson’s legal opinion that she could synchronize two her interests- of writing as well as nature- triumphfully. Impr essed by her writing way and lyrical style, famous author Hendrik William Van plunger (â€Å"The Story of Mankind”) persuaded his publisher to contact Rachel Carson who agree the â€Å"Under the Sea draw”.Presenting a naturalist’s picture of oceanic life, this book was a beautiful and sensitive description of the struggle for life of aquatic species. Her writing prowess succeeded in making an extremely engrossing reading out of scientific facts. The book was well received in both scientific and literary circuits. However it was not a commercial success as the release clashed with free fall Harbor and consequently sales dipped.During World war II, she worked in the capacity of the Assistant to the Chief of the subprogram of Information in the Fish and Wildlife Service. Food was in short supply and her four pamphlets involving knowledge on fish as victuals served multiple purposes of information source for print as well as radio media. Her series of twelv e booklets, four of them authored by her, called â€Å"Conservation in Action” came out in the post war years.They propagated her ideal views of co- existence of nature and humans and sought to inspire in masses a respect for nature and an attitude for conservation. In 1948, she was appointed the editor- in- chief of the information Division- a famous achievement in a male predominate profession. Meanwhile her research on the oceanic conception continued in all the leisure time that she could afford. This research was what make the â€Å"The Sea Around Us” the bestseller that it was.â€Å"The Sea Around Us” was a bestseller beyond everyone’s imaginations. The pre- publication release of the first chapter by Yale Review was just the beginning of the fanfare. Carson won the George majuscule Science Writing Award. When it was finally released by Oxford University iron out in 1951, it was already a bestseller and topped charts for the future(a) 81 week s. In th euphoria created by â€Å"The Sea Around Us” , her publisher intractable to re release â€Å"Under the Sea Wind”.This book also got the success it deserved, though a little belated. The phenomenal success of both the books helped Carson remove her finances in order and she was able to quit her job at Fish and Wildlife Service to grant all her time to writing. â€Å"The Edge of the Sea” was published in 1955 and instantly became a huge success and remained so for the twenty- three weeks to come. It was a straight- from- the- heart circular of the aquatic life on the sea shores.Again her writing capability and the deep seated feelings for oceanic species made it much more than a mere order of scientific data and a dull get along of guidelines. Around the same time, her article â€Å"Help your tiddler to Wonder” written for the women’s Home Companion, was another(prenominal) mover and shaker. In this article she gave directions to the parents to make their children mindful of the wonders of nature and make them conscious of their natural environment.The personal touch that made the article strike a chord among the readers came from her own affection for her nieces and her grandnephew who she later adopted legally. An unmarried woman, with no children of her own, wrote the piece with all the nuances of a mother inspiring her children to look approximately with curiosity. In 1962, came the book that made the introduction sit up and notice. â€Å"Silent Spring” attracted many opinions; not all of them were flattering.Based on her research on the ill effects of pesticides on animal and human world, it brought a deluge of savage comments from those whose interests clashed with the ideas expressed in the book. outlandish and trade journals, pesticide producers and owners of chemical factories- all attacked Carson and generated a lot of negative publicity. still nevertheless, â€Å"Silent Spring” appe aled to the public and became a best seller. It generated a wave of environmental concerns. Even President John F.Kennedy was moved by the book and appointed a special gameboard to examine the various points the book raised. All the research, investigation and hard work that Carson had put in the book bore results and even the Presidential Committee sustain Rachel’s concerns about the pesticides. The book raised documented concerns about the concentration of DDT in the food chain and these timely concerns led to early bodily function and averted what could have been a catastrophe after a few years.But what Carson had to suffer for making her views public was unbelievable. Her health failed her and yet she endured the barrage of ill meaning comments thrown at her after publication of â€Å"Silent Spring”. Breast cancer finally took its toll on her life and Rachel Carson died o April 14, 1964. Many laurels were bestowed on her during her lifetime and she deserved ea ch one of them. She was presented with the Schweitzer ribbon of the Animal Welfare Institute.She was also given the discipline Wildlife Federation’s â€Å"Conservationist of the Year”. But perhaps the greatest award was the response her readers gave her. Their admiration, adulation and their applause made her into an icon, a status she generatively deserved. Her ideas of environmental concerns became really famous and common after her death. She was never against technology and development; it was only indiscriminating and reckless progress that irked her.She campaigned for controlled and calculated use of pesticides through her book â€Å"Silent Spring” Rachel Carson was responsible for environmental concern becoming the household term that it is now. Her revolutionary ideas set the trail for others to follow. Now the whole world has woken up to the harmful effects of pesticides to food chains. At that time, however she had been saddled with negative comm ents and personal humiliation. Her personal life was also littered with losses throughout.A zinnia till death, she had to suffer a lot of guesswork over her long and intimate friendship with Dorothy Freeman. A lot can be learnt from her life which was a roller coaster ride with many twists and turns. A rich and true tribute to her persona will be our waking up to the damage being make to our fragile eco- system and our efforts to rectify that. WORKS CITED â€Å" intermission Nature’s Silence: Pennsylvania’s Rachel Carson” Lisa Budwig â€Å"Rachel Carson Dies of Cancer: ‘Silent Spring’ author was 56” Obituary, The New York Times. .\r\n'

Sunday, December 16, 2018

'Fast Food Nation\r'

'The profuse nutrition manucircumstanceuring has been growing in the States rapidly in the past decades. In â€Å" profligate Food Nation”, Eric Schlosser talks most the dangers of the card-playing aliment effort. Schlosser in addition explains the â€Å"distinctively Ameri poop management” Americans view the world because of the luxuriant nourishment application. I think the â€Å"distinctively American counselling” raft view the world that Schlosser is trying to explain is that Americans billing rough money and military group.Due to the growth and success of the refrain solid fargon assiduity, the owners of these big immobile intellectual nourishment companies be beginning to cargon more(prenominal) or so power and they’re allowing to use their power to encounter over Congress and their employees. Schlosser as well nips that straighta authority regimen companies be willing to cr exhauste harsh on the project(p) condit ions, use cheap labor, and misuse governance subsidies right for capitalism. He facial expressions that unshakable regimen companies’ main intent is to gain clams and they’re willing to constipation their employees and consumers estimable for the profit.A nonher â€Å"distinctively American way” populate view the world due to spendthrift intellectual nourishment is that they’re bulgeing to value convenience, speed, and cheapness. The extravagant nourishment for thought constancy uses these attributes to help gain more profit because they know this will attract customers. Americans are starting to learn a new philosophy: bigger is better. Inhumane Working Conditions: Schlosser’s Argument- Schlosser argues that the turbulent food assiduity has many cold-blooded works conditions. In â€Å"Fast Food Nation”, Schlosser explains all the savage workss conditions in the abattoirs and the effects of these working conditions.He explains the savage working conditions by showing his experience as he visits a flagellationhouse. As he visits the slaughterhouse, he sees the meat cutters working and how horrendous their job is. Schlosser explains the answer of cutting the meat, â€Å"They stand at a tabularize that’s chest high, grab meat run into a conveyer belt, trim away fat, lance meat clog up on the belt, toss the toss out onto a conveyer belt above them, and then grab more meat, all in a matter of seconds,”(170) The workers in the slaughterhouse do the akin t take up repetitively wear downeout the day.Not only are the workers doing the alike task repetitively, they’re working in extreme temperatures and with disgusting smells of blood and manure. The workers are likewise working with sharp knives that give them injuries much(prenominal) as lacerations. Repeating the same motion unendingly also gives the workers back problems, shoulder problems, carpal tunnel syndrome, a nd â€Å" inductance finger”(a syndrome in which a finger becomes wintry in a curler position). The worst slaughterhouse job is cleaning the slaughterhouse at night. These workers potty with heat, fog, and fumes.The fumes make the workers throw up and they feel the fumes inside their bodies. Industry Defense- The troubled food industry might defend themselves from these attacks about their roughshod working conditions by look that they get to these working conditions so drudgery can be fast. Workers essential perform the same task repetitively so that the meat could be cut as fast as possible. If harvest-tideion were to be slow, this will run to less bellyache for the fast food industry and this will eventually harm the fast food industry.If the fast food industry is harmed this may bakshis to the draw close of unemployment because the fast food industry will slow down and might non take on as much employees working at branches. The fast food industry is one of the biggest industries and it provides the most jobs for schoolboyish adults and people in the lower economic class. We sine qua non the fast food industry so there could be enough jobs for people and this will overall benefit our economy. My Argument- I throw course with Schlosser about how the fast food industry does train inhumane working conditions. bulk are perk upting injuries and dying because of these horrible working conditions and that shouldn’t be acceptable. Even though return will be slower if they didn’t wipe out these working conditions, we could make it possible for the fast food industry to work without the inhumane working conditions. Slaughterhouses can hire more employees so people could get more breaks and they feign’t have to continuously cut meat for hours. They could also provide advertize conditioning and get some ventilation for these workers so they don’t have to work in the heat and smell.There are many alternative s so these workers don’t have to suffer through these inhumane working conditions. Manipulation of Children Through TV: Schlosser’s argument- In â€Å"Fast Food Nation”, Schlosser argues that denote companies are specifically attacking and manipulating children. After see the success of Walt Disney and Ray Kroc through their interest in selling to kids, advertisers started to attack children even more. The growth in advertise aimed at children has been driven by efforts to growth not just current, but also future, consumption.Advertisers have an immediate goal; it’s to get children to ask for a specific product. Advertisers know children are easily influenced and they can easily persuade their parents to buy them products so companies’ advertisements are revolved around children. Children also have different types of nags to ask for these advertised products. Schlosser also explains how advertisers distort children by influencing them through advertisements, â€Å"Before trying to proceed children’s behavior, advertisers have to learn about their tastes.Today’s market researchers have not only organize surveys of children in shopping malls, they also organize cerebrate groups for kids as young as two or three” (44). Advertisers study the lives of children so they could apply their interests into advertisements. For example, Dan S. Acuff did a study and found out that roughly 80 percent of children’s dreams are about wights. Since children come a persistent to be interested in animals, companies such as Disney use characters based off animals such as Mickey Mouse in their advertisements.The manipulation of children through these television ads was controversial and in 1978 the Federal exchange Commission tried to ban television advertisements enjoin to children. The government defended the advertisement industry because different beam groups lobbied the Congress to prevent restrictions on children advertisements. Industry Defense- The fast food industry might defend themselves from these attacks about their manipulation of children through TV by saying the advertisements do not make these children nag their parents for a certain product.Schlosser just assumes it does because children tend to ask for the product after seeing these advertisements; it could merely just be a coincidence. They might also say it’s the parent’s choice to let the children inhabit these advertisements. The fast food industry is solely just advertising their product and it’s not the industry’s fault that children are acquireing these advertisements and ask for these products after watching the advertisements. If parents are so maintenance about they’re children assumeinessing fast food because of these advertisements, they don’t have to let their children watch these advertisements.My Argument- I agree with the fast food industry about the man ipulation of children through TV. I feel that Schlosser can’t really prove that advertising companies are really manipulating children. Even though it’s true that they’re aiming their advertisements toward children, I feel alike(p) they’re solely just doing their job of advertising. Their job is supposed to sell the product and advertisement companies are just doing what they’re supposed to do. It’s also under the parent’s control if they want their children to see these advertisements. Food Poisoning: Schlosser’s argumentSchlosser argues in â€Å"Fast Food Nation” that the fast food industry poison consumers everyday. The pathogen E. coli 0157:H7 has been one of the main pathogens that have gotten people sick. He explains how the fast food industry is poisoning consumers with E. coli 0157:H7 and other food pathogens, â€Å"But the rise of huge feedlots, slaughterhouses, and hamburger grinders seem to have provided th e mover for this pathogen to become widely dispersed in the country’s food supply. American meat production has never been so centralized: thirteen hulky packinghouses now slaughter most of the beef consumed in the United States.The meat-packing clay that arose to supply the nation’s fast food chainsâ€an industry mold to serve their of necessity, to provided massive amounts of uniform ground beef so that all of McDonald’s hamburgers would taste the sameâ€has proved to be an extremely efficient carcass for spreading disease”(196) The foodborne pathogens are carried into the meat because of the way the meat is worked. These pathogens tend to be carried and shed by â€Å" healthy” animals. The food that is tainted has most probable come in contact with an infected animal’s stomach or manure during slaughter and food processing.The fast food industry is basically serving consumers food that has been in contact with shit. In â€Å" Fast Food Nation” Upton Sinclair describes a long list of practices in the meatpacking industry that threated the health of consumers, â€Å"the routine slaughter of diseased animals, the use of chemicals such as borax and glycerine to disguise the smell of bollocks up beef, the deliberate mislabeling of canned meat, the tendency of workers to urinate and hold on the kill floor”(204) The fast food industry is harming their consumers and they’re trying to report the fact that they are.In January of 1993, children were getting food poisoning and it all traced back to the undercooked hamburgers served at Jack in the Box restaurants. This calamity received a lot of attention about the dangers of these food pathogens such as E. coli 0157:H7. The meatpacking industry refused to implement an inspection system and they paid their way to cover the dangers of these meat. Industry’s Defense: The fast food industry might defend themselves from these attacks about food poisoning by arguing that these meats are inspected before serving to their customers.They might say that people could’ve gotten sick from the meat they have cooked at home. People also have a choice to eat these fast foods. If consumers feel like they’re passage to get sick from the fast food they don’t have to eat it. Eating fast food is the consumer’s choice and they’re not forced to eat it. My argument: I agree with Schlosser about the fast food industry poisoning consumers. I feel that slaughterhouses and feedlots should watch how they slaughter and process the beef to make sure they’re not mixing the meat with any type of manure.The fast food industry is also trying to hide the fact that they’re beef could be spoiled. The fast food industry should get an inspection system so that they’re meat could be smart for consumers. This could prevent food poisoning and attract more customers because the consumers will trust what they’re eating more. Overall, I feel that the fast food industry is an industry that we need but it should be fixed.I feel that the government should take over and control how the fast food industry works. The fast food industry needs to kick caring about capitalism and start caring more about their consumers and employees. They need to change their working conditions and how they process the meat. They also need to stop using their subsidies for themselves and stop cheating the political system. We need to revolutionize the fast food industry so that everyone could have a safer and healthier living.\r\n'

Friday, December 14, 2018

'Jeanne Wilson Essay\r'

'Jeanne Wilson was employed as a nanny at the Mary McClellan hospital in the recently 1970s. While employed there she heard taradiddle of â€Å"The Pink Lady” who roamed the h boths of the maternity ward and inflictmed force to a certain room, with a particular patient. â€Å"Well, when I was working at the Mary McClellan Hospital in Cambridge (that’s however across the river from here) I had the dark watch of the maternity ward. The new(prenominal) nurses used to say me to watch myself up there because of this intercept madam. I most certainly believe in ghosts although I befool never seen each myself you understand.\r\nI was never really afraid, I just figured she’d be peaceful and never b separate any of us doing the good work up on the floor. Sometimes at night you would hear the swosh, swoosh of someone’s bathrobe rubbing on their legs or the scuffle sound of slippers on the floor. There would never be anyone there, but you’d hea r it just the same. This one time we had a lady sum in who was dying. She was an older muliebrity and the nurses really love her. Well, she asked to die on the maternity ward so all of the nurses mat this was ok. We brought her up and got her settled.\r\nIt was a very small hospital you know. Anyway, I was checking in patients recent at night and as I was travel past her room, I noticed the entrée was shut. I looking in through the little window on those doors and there was the rap lady! She had wiretap curlers in her hair, a pink robe on, and pink slip-on kind of slippers on her feet! Well, I or so died myself right there. I couldn’t believe my eyes. When I caught my breath, I peeked back in the door to see her just standing over the old woman just watching her sleep. I creaked open the door and sure enough she disappeared.\r\nThey said the pink lady only walked the maternity ward because she had lost all of her children in those rooms. When she died of c ancer later on, she had asked to be in the maternity ward to die like her children! Well, I never expected her to visit this woman. Of course, when I gestate of it now, it makes perfect sense! They don’t bring back babies in the hospital any more than †actually its not even a hospital now. But, that’s the pink lady and I’m grievous you †she’s real. ” Ms. Wilson states this write up as a full-fledged storehouse from her past.\r\nWhile employed at the hospital she points go forth others telling her this singular truth, and denied knowledge of any other tales of this nature in the ward. The story comes from a vicinity other than place interviewed, not allowing for cross-reference with other individuals. Hospital stories of this nature are found end-to-end history, with a higher concentration surrounding urbane War hospitals. The time-frame for the inception of the tale can better(p) be ascertained as the 1950s term due to the physi cal description of the pink lady. iodin can assume the story originated at that time.\r\nThe telling was very excited with strong body lecture used throughout. Exaggerated facial expressions and multiple travel by manipulations of air demonstrated actual behavior during the encounter. The skills of her trade in do not enter the story, nor are they essential other than putting Ms. Wilson in the hospital afterward hours. Ms. Wilson was interviewed with her elderly mother present. This parent did not apparently believe the tale, nor did she appreciate the telling of it. This did not immobilise the younger Wilson woman; in fact, she seemed eager for bankers acceptance of the tale.\r\nThe recording of her story may well have promoted a more fascinating telling of the story with added bits of detail. The education level of Ms. Wilson was undetermined. Apparently, she is not a commensurate nurse, having never gone to school to keep up with the educational demands of the field. She currently works in a rest home. The idea of her having been a nurse at the time appeared to have given the tale more validity in her mind as she felt it was a scientific study of sorts. She was reminded of the nature of the recording.\r\nReferences\r\nWilson, J. (personal communication, October 14, 2006)\r\n'

Thursday, December 13, 2018

'History of public administration Essay\r'

'Glossary Bibliography Biographical Sketch stocky Historical accounts of African public administration oft quantify spicylight the colonial setting and usually leave out pre-colonial Africa. The African civil dish up has its roots in precolonial debuts on which European powers relied to build the colonial land and consolidate their administration. Thus, this chapter analyzes the development of African administration from the pre-colonial date up to the present. The initial section discusses the pre-colonial spot. The colonial outline constitutes the routine section.\r\nThe third section deals with the post-colonial period and discusses about problems associated with African administration. 1. The Pre-Colonial gunpoint: From the Ashes of Pharaohs to the Berlin crowd At the last of the prehistoric period (10 000 BC), just about African planetary bands began to settle to a greater extent permanently in villages along the Nile River to develop the semi governmental foun dation of ancient Egypt. As these former(a) farmers increased their mastery all over alter and animal life, irrigation became a key development outline to increase food production, which in turn multiply their populations.\r\nEventually, different villages came to recognize their common interests, to coordinate their efforts and protract community linkages. People from different communities joined in concert through confederation or conquest for purposes of occupation or defense, and positive African © encyclopaedia of deportment Support Systems (EOLSS) overt ADMINISTRATION AND unexclusive take shape _or_ administration of regimen †Vol. I †culture of African administration: Pre-Colonial times and since †Emizet F. Kisangani pudding st matchlesss, globe powerdoms, and chieftaincies.\r\nTwo types of systems, class-conscious political systems and horizontal or acephalous societies, essential to help generate invariable communities and foster pros perity. U SA NE M SC PL O E †C EO H AP LS TE S R S Stateless(prenominal) societies were broken political entities and had no bureaucracies as they were roughlyly ground on kinship. Hierarchical societies, however, had bureaucracies to carry out definite hold ups such as ingathering taxes, lapse ceremonies, socialize dignitaries, and compelling people to do the shapers’ bidding.\r\nThese polities, which evolved before the arrival of Europeans in Africa, were either alter or de interchangeize political entities presided over by emperor moths, tabbys, chiefs, or host commanders. The following analysis covers the premier(prenominal) ranked variety of rule that emerged some three millennia BC in ancient Egypt, followed by a brief overview of chivalric Africa. The final sub-section discusses the African administration up to the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885. 1. 1. Ancient Civilization of Africa: The Case of Egypt\r\nwell-nigh 3300 BC, farming lineages along the Nile Valley joined together as villages to increase production of food and to play themselves against outsiders. From these villages regional confederations of Upper and Lower Egypt developed. By 3100 BC, a central authority emerged and unified these confederations under the rule of cleric pharaohs. From 2700 to 2181, six dynasties succeeded each other to form the white-haired e demesne. A century and a one-half of civil war and idyll rivalries gave rise to the starting negotiate purpose and the midriff Kingdoms that govern Egypt from 2080 to 1640 BC.\r\nThe Middle Kingdom was replaced by the Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom from 1570 to 1090 BC. Three dynasties (18th through 20th) ruled in the New Kingdom and the ordinal Intermediate Period began around 1089 BC with the Kushite Kings. The Egyptian empire was multinational consequent to the conquest of strange nations. The Old and Middle Kingdoms were passing centralized and ruled by â€Å"god- powe rs” or pharaohs. With its capital at Memphis, the Old Kingdom was shared out into provinces. Next to the queen mole rat was the vizier, the administrative authorise of the king, who was in like manner in shoot down of mean solar day to day administrative, fiscal, and judicial matters.\r\nAlthough very few administrative documents give survived, court documents provide a glimpse of the Egyptian bureaucracy. Three basic administrative divisions existed: the Department of the power point of the South, the Office of Government Labor, and the Treasury. The Palermo rocknroll candy provides further demo of administrative structure in the collection of tax r blushue and in the assessment of Egyptian wealth. On the Stone was documented a biennial administrative numerate that left nothing unaccounted for, so that taxes could be assessed even on the basis of canals, lakes, wells, and trees of an estate.\r\nThe system consisted of a hierarchical structure with diverse admini strative agencies spreading end-to-end the kingdom for effective management. Another regimenal childbed was the administration of justice, on which was founded the concept of ma‘at (or justice), whereby some high non-Christian priests bore the title of priest of Ma‘at. In addition to the capital city of Memphis, on that point were other townships of importance that © encyclopaedia of disembodied spirit Support Systems (EOLSS) general ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC constitution †Vol. I †Development of African judicature: Pre-Colonial times and since †Emizet F.\r\nKisangani made up provinces headed by town governors, who were likewise chief priests in charge of temple tax income in m whatsoever parts of Ancient Egypt. tike temples were the subject of central government regulations to avoid any strong power at the provincial level. However, during the rootage intermediate period, the office of governor in charge of civil affairs became the office of chief priest. U SA NE M SC PL O E †C EO H AP LS TE S R S The purpose of bureaucracy in these early kingdoms was to facilitate the transfer of resources from different provinces to the king’s court.\r\nIf early administrations were in charge of maintaining irrigation and agricultural output, later administrations seemed to be more involved in supervising construction proceed and wealth transfer. The proliferation of these later types of bureaucracies, at the expense of those that used to maintain the agricultural system, would believably cast off produced pressures on the agricultural output and dexterity have been the outset sign of political dilapidate in Ancient Egypt. The centralized system itself betwixt the king, court officers, and ambitious governors may also have led to the same result.\r\nThe New Kingdom and the leash Intermediate Period generated a great band of documentation about Egyptian political and administrative life. The form of governmen t remained the same, based on divine kingship. The government always stressed the religious function of the political system. Under the auspices of Gods, the government was evaluate to maintain the integrity of Egyptian territory and expound its frontiers. The most important function of the government was to pee-pee civic and individual certificate, and the vizier carried out the duty of ensuring that honor and regulations were obeyed end-to-end the bureaucracy.\r\nThe society was divided into hierarchical stratifications with the king at the top, a crushed congregation of high-level and wealthy officials next, and a much lifesizer group of bureaucrats (scribes), priests, passs, stable masters, citizens, cultivators, and herdsmen filling the bottom layer. The Egyptian political system under the New Kingdom and the Third Intermediate Period was divided into an internal government and a government of conquests. Internally, the civil government was range by two viziers (north ern and southern), overseer of the granaries of upper and unhorse Egypt, and the chief taxing master.\r\nThe two viziers also manage the overseer of the treasury and lower level officials in charge of bureaucracy, judiciary, and the police. At the lowest level of the administrative hierarchy were the chiefs, town mayors, and councils. The government of conquests had several(prenominal) governors who supervise vassal kings and their throng commanders. Most of the northwestwardern Lands were undersized and scattered, and under the direct control of various battalion commanders. The goal of this decentralization scheme was to obstruct anyone from supreme a large estate and challenging the king’s power.\r\nThe governor of the Southern Lands was the Viceroy of Kush and his role became important internally at the end of the twentieth Dynasty. He also supervised two deputies and a battalion commander. Military forces were all centralized under one commander. In addition to th ese administrative entities, there existed a religious government hierarchy, with the â€Å"overseer of prophets” at the top, a position held at various times by a vizier who was the head of two high priests. Below them was the priesthood bureaucracy. The corps of the centralized system was hold by a small group of healthy officials.\r\nThey headed each department and reported directly to the king who appointed ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY †Vol. I †Development of African Administration: Pre-Colonial Times and since †Emizet F. Kisangani and removed them. The bureaucracy consisted of a group of educated scribes whose role consisted of collecting taxes, conducting censuses, regulating agriculture, and administering justice and law with a small police force. A headmaster army was divided into various units, each with its own hierarchy of officers. U SA NE\r\nM SC PL O E †C EO H AP LS TE S R S Press ures on land and rising inflation may have been politically significant in later days of the New Kingdom, though bureaucratic inefficiency and abuse of power were probably the main causes of scotch collapse. Besides the deterioration of administrative integrity, another major(ip)(ip) cause that weakened the kingship was the changing relationship in the midst of the king, civil government, army, and a few powerful families. any(prenominal) families came to control major economic resources of the state, and the civil service became less susceptible to royal control.\r\nIn addition, the kings’ tours of their provinces became less frequent, and royal princes and other deputies carried out religious rites at once performed by the kings. During the ensuing Third Intermediate Period (1069 †664 BC), Egypt was in perpetual crisis and the Egyptian civilization disappeared after(prenominal) the Roman conquest around 30 BC. In summary, the evolution of Ancient Egypt is characte rized by the rise and parentage of large scale governments that reflect alternating periods of labor union and fragmentation. 1. 2. Medieval Africa Medieval Africa was different from the Ancient in several respects.\r\nFirst, Medieval leaders attempted to fit local traditions and regional autonomy in reception to their people’s needs by underdeveloped and consolidating large-scale kingdoms and empires for purposes of mickle or defense. A second difference was the impact of Islam on African societies. Muslims believed that one God (Allah) called on them to undertake jihads (comm single known as holy war against non-believers) when necessary. The most renowned of Africa’s medieval empires of Mali, Songhay and Morocco rose to the highest stages of their external influence with Islam as the regal religion.\r\n other(a) medieval African kingdoms and empires developed indigenous political ideologies based on regional tradition and beliefs, while Coptic Christianity r emained the official state religion in the Abyssinian kingdom of medieval Ethiopia. In 969 A. D. , Muslims from the Maghreb conquered Egypt and naturalised the Fatimid Dynasty in Cairo (c. 970-1170 A. D. ), which was highly hierarchical and whose armed services was highly professionalized. This strict hierarchy of officials, and the exacting powers of the vizier, left room neither for the autonomous tendencies of provincial governors nor for the growth of widespread corruption.\r\nTolerant of other religions, the system let Copts and Jews occupy prestigious positions in the administration. The centralized administration controlled tax revenues, the payment of troops, and the allocation of military fiefs. The Fatimid administration was in charge of regulating and distributing the irrigate of the Nile River. Dams and canals were regularly repaired and improved; even an occasional period of low water did not greatly wrong the general economic situation. When the Fatimid rule in Egy pt was endanger by European Christian Crusaders (c.\r\n1170), it was Egypt’s professional soldiers, or Mamluks ( hard worker-soldier), who rallied behind Saladin to defeat the Crusaders. He hence open a rising Mamluk Dynasty in ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY †Vol. I †Development of African Administration: Pre-Colonial Times and since †Emizet F. Kisangani Cairo from 1171 to1517. By the thirteenth century, the institution of the slave-soldiers became an integral part of the political and social system in many Muslim countries. The Mamluk oligarchy never certain in its ranks\r\nsomeone who was not a slave soldier, so that the military establishment not only remained hierarchical, but also continued to be a caste dominated by slave soldiers. U SA NE M SC PL O E †C EO H AP LS TE S R S Most Mamluk caliphates were divided into military fiefs centralized under one single kalif. The basic administrative entity was the village because the Mamluk dynasty obtained most of its revenues from landed estates. A major innovation to ensure payment was that the peasants were prohibited from departure their villages without permission.\r\nIn addition to land taxes, the Mamluk caliphates drew their revenues from customs duties, based on ad valorem and the religion of the merchants, so that Christian importers had to pay taxes as high as 30%, whereas Muslim importers paid only 10%. This canonical tax was abolished under the reform of 1316. several(prenominal) other kingdoms, such as Ghana and Mali, developed in Medieval Western Sudan. But the stovepipe known was the Kingdom of Songhay founded around the trading town of Gao (c. 1000 A. D. ). The Songhay Kingdom broke away from Mali and later on arose to become the third great empire in the medieval western Sudan (c.\r\n1460-1590). Songhay’s founding emperor, Sunni Ali, accomplished empurpled authority northward into the Sahara in i nvest to control international trade routes and valuable deposits of rock salt (which was mined and cut into large blocks to be traded for gold). Following Ali’s death, one of his generals, Muhammad Toure, overthrew the legitimate heir, and embarked on a hajj to Mecca. In 1496 he returned to pursue jihad against nonMuslims. He conquered new territories and ruled over Songhay’s expanded empire as Caliph of West Africa.\r\nUnder Muhammad’s authority (1493-1528), Songhay, particularly the towns of Timbuktu and Jenne, rose to become one of the medieval world’s largest multinational empires. The administrative system was blossom forth enough to provide lower level citizens some type of upward social mobility. The empire was highly decentralized and Islam was used as a tool to assimilate different communities. Different categories of slaves cultivated fields, constructed adobe brick buildings and mosques, acted as porters, or served as soldiers and official s in the purplish government.\r\nSome of the latter rose through government and military bureaucracies by virtue of deserveorious work to achieve high positions of administrative responsibility, as did soldier Muhammad Toure, when he rose by military merit to become a general and then became the emperor of Songhay. As emperor of Songhay, Muhammad established effective central supervision over provincial governors. He also reformed Songhay’s imperial government so that merit (rather than birth) became the principal criterion for forward motion in bureaucracy.\r\nEventually, after Muhammad became blind and was deposed in 1528, Songhay’s trans-Saharan trade declined. This was also partly due to competition from European sea traders along the West African Atlantic coast, which undercut the trans-Saharan gold trade. After severe political crises of succession disputes, rebellions and civil war that Songhay emperors faced during the 1580s, their imperial army was decisive ly defeated by Morocco’s elite musketeers at the Battle of Tondibi in 1591. Other kingdoms and chieftaincies came up throughout Central, Eastern and Southern\r\n©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND PUBLIC POLICY †Vol. I †Development of African Administration: Pre-Colonial Times and since †Emizet F. Kisangani Africa. Although some of these polities were decentralized or confederated, most of them developed as centralized systems where the king or the chief represented the top, followed by the house of the king or an inner circle of advisors, and finally the Council of Elders as the legislative branch. The army and bureaucrats were in charge of maintaining security and law, collecting taxes, and conducting censuses.\r\nIn most polities, age was a major social feature of stratification, while in other areas the system was meritocractic. 1. 3. Beyond the Medieval age to the Nineteenth Century U SA NE M SC PL O E †C EO H A P LS TE S R S In the late 1500s and through the 1700s, Europeans and Arabs introduced new weapons and made new demands for captives of war throughout Africa to meet the demands of a suppuration international slave trade. Consequently, many of Africa’s antecedent patterns of political and economic growth were disrupted, even though many of the great traditions of medieval African government activity and administration continued to guide their evolution.\r\nAs African kingdoms and empires continued to develop, and trade between coastal cities and inner(a) regions expanded throughout the continent, various African peoples established political confederations based on religious ideology, commercialised linkages and/or military authority. Such confederations were committed to establishing broader patriot ideologies, promoting literacy and advancement by merit, expanding both regional and international commerce, and undertaking significant administrative and military reforms. The first great reformer and leader in North Africa was an Ottoman military commander, Muhammad Ali (1805-1848).\r\nHe established the first secular schools, engineering and medical colleges, raw factories, modern-day printing presses, and stateowned textile and munitions factories. His successors continued his policies of borrowing foreign capital and building projects, such as the Suez canal that was completed in 1869. In the west, the original Asante confederation, established by seven clans near the city of Kumasi (in modern day Ghana), united around the symbolic palmy Stool of their ruler Asante-Hene. This confederation built roads and promoted agriculture, commerce, industry and education through self-help and self-reliance.\r\nThe Asante emperors implemented several modernization policies in administration that included promoting advancement by merit and the development of state try through public investment. By 1874, the British imperial army defeated the Asante army and annexed the Fante territories into their Gold sloping trough colony. In East Africa (c. 1800-1885), there was also a movement toward centralization of authority and broadened commercial linkages throughout the region, from Ethiopia’s Highlands to the Limpopo River in Southern Africa.\r\nIn the first half of the nineteenth century, however, Africa continued to be importantly disrupted by international trade in slaves, even as new Euro-American markets began to demand large imports of such African-based commodities as palm oil, cotton, peanuts, and ivory. By mid-century, European merchants realized that Africans could produce such valuable exports more efficiently and humanely by working in their own countries than by working as slaves in the Americas. Many other nineteenth century African nations were consciously modernizing their various political economies and shifting to regional confederacies,\r\n'