Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Magnatune essays

Magnatune essays Record producer is a loosely defined term that (in my opinion) could reach from As to managers and essentially means any person responsible for completing a master recording so that it is fit for release. He/she controls the recording sessions, coaches and guides the performers, and supervises or takes part in the mixing process. How a producer makes money depends on the relationship he/she has with the artist and or record label. An executive producer typically invests in a project and in return receives royalties from future sales. Other producers like musician producers might receive money upfront as well as royalties from future sales of an album. The way Magnatune is set up may pose some problems for record producers. First Magnatune cuts out the middle man (record label) which puts everything in the hands of the artist. Thats not entirely good for producers. While they stand to make more if they are working from a percentage stand point now its up to the artist to keep track of the books and pay the producers whatever monies is owed to them from the sales if any. Not everyone is cut out for the business side of the music industry and most artists want nothing to do with it. Also the temptation factor is too much. If you could say that you havent sold anything meanwhile youve been selling music through downloads it adds another chance that not all parties involved will get their fair share. Without the labels a lot of the big recording budget money that the producers used to illegally pocket is also gone. Since Magnatune is catering to the independent artist there are no big budget productions. Magnatude is going to slowly k ill the record producer. Its purpose is to put the music back in the hands of the artist. So one of the side effects is the record producer must die. With all the music being made at home or in project studios very little will ever enlist the help of a producer. Its not ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Do You Really Need Fiske Guide to Colleges Expert Review

Do You Really Need Fiske Guide to Colleges Expert Review SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Deciding which guidebooks will be most useful to you in the college research process can be pretty tricky. The Fiske Guide to Colleges is a commonly used resource for prospective college students, and it does contain a lot of useful information. However, it also has some major drawbacks and may not be very helpful in making a final decision on where to apply. In this review, I'll tell you all about the exclusive content of the guide, its overall pros and cons, and whether you should actually buy it and use it in your college search. Overview The Fiske Guide to Colleges has been around for over 30 years, but this review will focus on the 2015 edition of the guide.The Fiske Guide contains information about over 300 four-year colleges that its writers consider to be the â€Å"best and most interesting institutions in the nation†. In other words, it contains the schools that are the most relevant to the highest number of prospective students.The book is edited by Edward Fiske, the former education editor of the New York Times (hence its title). The Fiske Guide includes 175 of the most selective schools in the nation.In addition to schools with extremely high academic standards, it includes colleges that lend geographic diversity to the list and create an equal balance of private and public schools.The guide also incorporates specialty schools that may be based around engineering, a particular religious denomination, or a devotion to environmental conservation. Finally, it includes schools that the writers simply found interesting based on their unique curriculum. The Fiske Guide's reviews of colleges include lots of student testimony.Each college was provided with a questionnaire for students to fill out that asked about their experiences at the school with regards to accessibility of professors, quality of housing, nightlife, and campus dining.Administrators also were allowed to weigh in about their school and send information to the writers of the guide to aid in their understanding of the school’s goals and inner workings.Each school in the guide is accompanied by a 1,000 to 2,500-word descriptive essay incorporating student feedback and other information accumulated through published resources and visits to these colleges. What's your least favorite aspect of your college? It doesn't have enough money to buy a desk so I can fill out this questionnaire like a normal human being. What Specific Information and Resources Does the Guide Give You? Now that you have a basic idea of what the Fiske Guide to Colleges is, let's take a look at what information it can actually give you. The guide contains statistics and ratings for each school, lists of colleges broken down by category, and a survey to help determine your college preferences. Statistics Every college page is equipped with a sidebar of quick facts that gives you an overview of some essential statistics about the school. This offers a succinct look at the school's positive and negative qualities if you don't have time to read the full essay. College Cost The Fiske Guide gives you the percentage of students receiving financial aid at each school.You’ll also see a rating for how expensive the school is, ranging from one dollar symbol to four.This comes along with an indication of whether the college is public or private. A school that has the most expensive rating ($$$$) as a private college will be far more expensive than a public college with the same rating. You can find a guide to these ratings at the beginning of the book. For public schools, one $ indicates a price of less than $8,000, and for private schools it indicates a price of less than $37,000.Specific numbers are not provided because tuition prices can change from year to year, so these would become out of date very quickly.You’ll see statistics for the percentage of students who take out loans as well, along with the average debt for students at each school. Test Scores The Fiske Guide provides SAT and ACT score ranges for each school.The ranges reflect the middle 50% of admitted students, meaning the low end represents the 25th percentile of scores, and the high end represents the 75th percentile. Admissions and Enrollment Admissions statistics include the number of applicants, acceptance rate, and percentage of students enrolled out of the pool of accepted candidates.The guide also provides eachschool’s graduation rate after six years and the percentage of returning freshman. The total enrollment at the school along with the number of undergraduate students and the male/female ratio are included as well. I won't tell anyone you didn't actually graduate if you tell prospective students that we're installing giant waterslides on the green next year. Ratings These ratings are unique to the Fiske Guide, and they can be a helpful overview of how well-balanced a school is when considering both its academic offerings and social scene. Each is recorded on a scale of one to five. Academic Rating This rating is based on the school's reputation in the academic world, the quality of the faculty, the level of teaching and research, the academic ability and seriousness of students, and the quality of the academic facilities. Social Life Rating This measures the level of recreational student interaction on campus and how much time students devote to socializing in general. Quality of Life Rating The Fiske Guide has this rating category because sometimes schools with good academics and a healthy amount of socializing still don't have a particularly happy student body. In these rare cases the college's atmosphere might not be supportive or the location might be very isolated, leading to a decline in general quality of life. This rating measures overall student satisfaction. Low quality of life. Lists and Other Resources The Fiske Guide contains consolidated lists of schools that will help you find exactly what you're looking for based on price and curriculum focus. It also includes a college survey for those of you who still aren't sure of exactly what you want in a college. Best Buy Colleges and List of Schools by Price The guide's list of â€Å"Best Buy† colleges represents the schools that give you â€Å"outstanding academics with relatively modest prices†.The Fiske Guide for 2015 lists 44 Best Buy schools divided equally between public and private institutions.Essentially, they represent an intersection of four or five star academic ratings and one or two dollar signs price ratings(inexpensive to moderately expensive).Fiske also catalogs schools by price and public or private status at the beginning of the book so you can target your search towards the ones with the cheapest price tags. Lists of Schools by Type There are a couple of lists at the beginning of the guide that may help you narrow your search if you have a concentrated academic focus.One list, entitled â€Å"A Guide for Preprofessionals†, lists schools that are strongest in nine different preprofessional areas including architecture, art/design, business, communications/journalism, engineering, film/television, dance, drama, and music.This list also includes schools that are strong in environmental studies and international studies, two increasingly popular interdisciplinary majors.There are two other lists as well: schools that offer strong support for students with learning disabilities and schools that are test optional (they don't require SAT or ACT scores). College Search Survey Within its introduction, the Fiske Guide contains a mini-guide to your college search process.This includes a â€Å"sizing-yourself-up† survey that asks some basic questions about your likes, dislikes, and preferences for size, location, and academic/extracurricular offerings.The survey will give you a basic idea of what you want out of college, although it may be difficult to apply the results to your search within the book itself (more on this later). You seem like you have a lot of negative energy - you should probably buy the Fiske Guide 2015 2.0. It costs $2,000, but it will CHANGE YOUR LIFE. (Making fun of Scientology will never get old.) Pros and Cons: What Makes this Guide More or Less Useful for You? Now you know what's in the guide, but will it actually help you find your dream college? I'll go over the pros and cons of the guide so you can decide whether or not to buy one for yourself. Pros of the Fiske Guide If you already have some schools in mind, this guide can give you great insight into the perspectives of real studentsthrough its descriptive essays. You may not be able to find such a concise yet comprehensive overview of what campus life is like anywhere else. The Fiske Guide has reliable connections to students and administrators at the best schools in the country, and many of the essays provide more relevant student feedback than college review sites. The essays cover information in roughly the same order for each college.This makes it simple to look at a couple of essays about different schools and compare two topic descriptions (for example, descriptions of the academic climate at a school are always at the beginning of each essay). The statistics are easy to digest and not too overwhelming. With the pricing scales and symbolic representations of ratings, it’s easy to tell whether a school is a good fit without sorting through a bunch of confusing numbers. Specialized lists give you the means to conduct your search more logically. If you’re interested in a specific preprofessional area of study or are looking for schools that don’t require test scores, the lists in the Fiske Guide will quickly reveal your options. The introduction and college search survey go into detail about how to conduct your searchso it doesn’t feel as confusing. Cool, sounds good! Cons of the Fiske Guide Although this guide might be more fun to read than some other resources, it makes it difficult to filter out schools.The essays paint most schools in a pretty good light. For example, a school in the middle to lower end of the pack in the guide (3-star ratings and a 70% admissions rate) is heralded as an "undiscovered gem". There are also many statements like "humanities programs are very strong, but science majors are also enormously popular" and "students get the best of several worlds: excellence in engineering and the liberal arts, abundant research opportunities, and a healthy social life". While this may get you more excited for college and can be encouraging, it makes it tough to narrow down your list of schools.Every school seems to have so much going for it that it's nearly impossibly to pick favorites. The statistics are easy to understand, but they’re not particularly detailed. If you want more specific information about the costs of schools including in-state vs. out of state tuition and room and board, you will have to look elsewhere. It's true that tuition changes frequently, so the guide would be inaccurate very quickly if it gave specific numbers, but there are still some exact figures you should know before deciding on a college. Subjectivity, as outlined by the authors in the introduction, is a key feature of the Fiske Guide. This isn't necessarily a bad thing, but it does mean that you can’t take all the ratings as indisputable fact.It is easy to get caught up in the fact that one school has a four-star quality of life rating and another school has a three-star rating while ignoring the fact that the three-star school might be a better fit for you in other ways.For the Fiske Guide to be helpful, you have to be on your guard about which statistics are real and which are loosely based on reality but not true for every single student. Academic ratings, in particular, can be difficult to sort out.The guide only recommends comparing these ratings directly from one school to another if both schools are of a similar â€Å"type† - that is, two large public colleges or two small private colleges.A small private college with a five-star academic rating may have a very different academic climate than a large public college with the same rating. This makes differentiating between schools challenging if you don’t already have many of your preferences for size, location, and resources in mind. My wheat is w[h]eeping from these cons. Should You Use the Fiske Guide to Colleges? The Fiske Guide is a nice accessory for your college search, but it can sometimes lead to more doubts and confusion. It contains so many seemingly great options that it becomes very difficult to sort through them. My advice is to only usethe Fiske Guide if you’re (a) in the earliest stages of looking at colleges or (b) already have a strong idea of your preferences that won't be influenced too strongly by the guide's more subjective ratings. Underclassmen If you’re a freshman or sophomore and are just starting to investigate colleges, the Fiske Guide is a good way to start investigating what life is like at different schools without the pressure of having to make major decisions.It presents the college experience as an exciting and rewarding time in your life, and might help to motivate you to work towards ambitious academic goals early in high school. If this is your situation, a smart way use the book is to read descriptions of schools that vary significantly across different dimensions. For example, read the entry for a very small college and a very large college, and see which one appeals to you more. By doing this, you'll begin to see what your preferences are without having to zero in on a specific school. At this early stage, you could also just skim the book straight through and read more closely for schools that are of particular interest. There's no need to force yourself into any commitments. Juniors and Seniors The Fiske Guide also works well when you already have concrete preferences in mind and want to compare specific schools or types of schools that interest you.If you already have a narrower scope in mind for your search, the Fiske Guide can be a useful tool for evaluating the student experience at the types of schools that interest you.You’ll be able to make more logical and useful comparisons based on ratings if the schools you’re looking at already have many traits in common. For example, if you know cost is important to you, you can look at the school index by price and just read the descriptions of schools that are within your price range. If you're planning on going into a specific professional field, you can focus solely on schools listed as having top programs in that area. If you know where in the country you want to go to school, you can look only at schools that fit those location preferences. The College of Fine Arts at Carnegie Mellon, one of the private colleges listed in the Fiske Guide as having an excellent architecture program. If you aren’t sure where to begin with your college search and are already a junior or older, you may want to consult other resources before turning to the Fiske Guide.While the guide does contain a â€Å"sizing-yourself-up survey† to help you figure out what your preferences are for college, it may be difficult to apply your answers to your search within the book. Instead, trystarting with online resources that allow you to search by college type and provide more in-depth statistics on schools. Sites like Cappex (a college matchmaking site that includes suggestions for schools you might like based on your academic performance and other preferences), College Navigator (a site that allows you to search for schools by location, program type, and other factors), and FastWeb (for scholarships and other information about paying for college) are good places to narrow down your search and determine what you want out of college.When you have a better idea of what your preferences are, you can use the Fiske Guide to get a more colorful picture of student life that you might not see onthese sites. Overall, the Fiske Guide is fun to use, but it's not overly helpful in narrowing down your college choices if you’re unsure of what you want in the first place.It should be used in addition to, not as a substitute for, a great deal of introspection about what you want out of your higher educational experience. What's Next? If you're looking for tips on how to get started in your college search, read my article onhow to choose a college. Before you look at any guidebooks or websites, it can be helpful to narrow down your college preferences in terms of size and location. Learn more about the characteristics of large and small colleges and about whether you're better suited to a school that's close to home. Another good way to whittle down your choices is to decide if you might be interested in an in-state school. Take a look at this article to get a better idea of whether an in-state school might be a good choice for you. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Family concept Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Family concept - Essay Example Even today, a large number of sick people choose to recuperate from their illnesses at home. It is only when they develop severe symptoms that they feel compelled to visit hospitals. According to Berbiglia (2011) only 5% of all the elderly people are permanent members of institutions. Families are also in the best position to nurse their sick. This is because most people live with at least one family member. This means that family members are in the best position to provide care since there is no cost involved. Families readily accept responsibilities for realizing the self-care of different family members who may fall ill (Casida, Peters and Magnan, 2009). Governmental as well as non-governmental organizations also realize the significance of families in dispensing healthcare services as they often invest resources in them that allow for the family members to be able to conduct self-care responsibilities. A family in any community is responsible for supplying its individual members with certain resources that are necessary for healthy living such as security, clothing, food, shelter, and the right to medical care. Additionally, family-centered health care is based on the notion that the family is the sick person’s main source of support as well as strength. ... Is it the most helpful concept for considering family in nursing practice? Why? Nurses can utilize family strengths as a basic system to encourage the formation of healthy and strong relationships between family care takers and patients. Some of the strong family –related attributes include appreciation and affection, communication, strong spiritual counseling and support, and psychological support when dealing with mental or physical illnesses. With these types of family strengths, nurses can assist a family’s members to identify their hopes and visions for the future and concentrate on them instead of pondering over the issues that likely led to family problems (Casida, Peters and Magnan, 2009). Orem’s theory of self care is a theory that addresses the different types of care that can be provided for a sick person by his or her family. Which of the theories presented in your readings this week is conducive to your area of practice and why? There are three syste ms that are found in the Orem theory: the compensatory structure, in which the nurse is completely in charge of all the care activities associated with the patient, the partial compensatory model, where the patient is able to be responsible for self-administering some care options, and the educative-development model, in which the whole responsibility of overseeing care options falls on the patient and the nurse merely acts in the capacity of a consultant. In Orem's theory of nursing, the family is conceptualized from three perspectives: a) as a dynamic that conditions a person's need for care and capacity to provide care for him or herself b) as a dependent unit of care c) as a service unit. In this theory, nurses recognize that the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Auditing Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Auditing - Case Study Example Due to reluctance of tone of Societe Generale, the company had to face a loss of almost $7.2 billion in 2008. It is in this context that Societe Generale provided higher concentration on the front office activities and there was less consideration towards back office performances. As a consequence, there was imbalance between the control of front office and back office functions (Beasley, M. S. & Et. Al., â€Å"How a Low Risk Trading Caused a $7.2 billion Loss†). Due to this reason, Societe Generale was incompetent to develop acute inspections essential for controlling the roles and responsibilities of employees. From the case study, it can be observed that like other organizations, Societe Generale had also become quite determined about drumming up its market worth. Thus, it did not provide much attention towards the traders and its responsibilities for managing the risks, while it rendered high significance for financial organizations in order to maintain profitability (Wart zman, â€Å"Executives Are Wrong to Devalue Values†). According to Canadian Auditing Standard (CAS), ‘Tone at the Top’ outlines the principles of a business unit and administration’s obligation to aptitude and beliefs (Hartley, â€Å"Tips for Cost-Effective CAS Application†). Tone at the top is necessary for better financial control in any organization. By judging the tone at the top of Societe Generale it can be characterized that it had certain lacunas of internal control which can be categorized as the reason for huge loss faced by the company. For any organization, the top level administration must be clear regarding the rules of business because different organizations have different risk desires. In Societe Generale the management was unable to apply the rules of business throughout the internal working culture. There is need for better internal management which can scrutinize the activities of all employees so that any kind of illegal activit ies can be detected and prevented accordingly (Beasley, M. S. & Et. Al., â€Å"How a Low Risk Trading Caused a $7.2 billion Loss†). Question 3 CAS describes that maltreatments in the financial statements ascend from either fraudulent activities or accidental mistakes (OAS, â€Å"Canadian Auditing Standards†). Fraudulent activity comprises three aspects which are pressures or incentives, opportunity and rationalization. Pressure or incentive is the aspect which influences or tends to give reasons to an individual to conduct fraud. With respect to Jerome Kerviel (one of the traders of Societe Generale), as a trader, the earning of Kerviel was quite low in comparison with other top level traders. He even did not consider himself as a trader due to his low earnings. Thus, his incentive for conducting fraudulent activity was to enhance his reputation within the company and thus increase the bonus amount (Beasley, M. S. & Et. Al., â€Å"How a Low Risk Trading Caused a $7.2 billion Loss†). Hence, he was constrained for gaining more money by undertaking monetary risks. Rationalization is the other aspect in majority of fraud cases. It involves reconciling the behavior of the individual alleged for committing fraudulent activities. After disclosure of the fraudulent activity of Kerviel, his rationalization was to make sure that his superiors were aware regarding his activities. Kerviel had articulated that his superiors

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Adult learning and motivation Essay Example for Free

Adult learning and motivation Essay An exploration in to the multi-dimensionality of participatory behaviour; and what motivates adults to return to education. The research question that was initially formulated aimed to inductively generate a theory (Rothchild 2006; Cohen et al., 2000). Unfortunately, the initial question became subject to ethical challenges; and within a framework that would demonstrate rigour, validity and reliability, unsurprisingly; it was far better too approach/explore the multi-dimensionality of participatory behaviour; and what motivates adults to return to education. An enquiry designed around this approach has a better fit to a pragmatic framework (Armitage and Keeble-Allen, 2007; Bryman, 2007) and the BERA ethical directives. Furthermore, this should help bolster the totality of coherence; or as Moss et al., (2009) would suggest as; ‘a chain of reasoning and logic’. Similarly, individual agency and how the experiences of adult learners’ are co/re-constructed (Clark 2011; Flowers 2009; p. 3) needed a greater relationship to an interpretivist epistemology (E891 Part 2: Action 2.9; Gage 1989). As the researcher primarily overlooked these factors that, in turn, determine what is seen as valid and invalid knowledge; then [those] factors would have been overlooked when inferences were made during the research process reducing the quality and internal and possibly external validity. Obviously, this incommensurability will be addressed before the researcher analyses any data generated (Bryman, 2007; p. 19). With these approaches better placed the researcher could demonstrate that generally social and cognitive phenomena are simultaneously quantitative and qualitative (Ercikan and Roth, 2006; p.16) and participatory behaviour is an outcome of the ‘meaning-made’ (Clark 2011) i.e. social-cognitive collocation. This would then show that cognition is co-constructed (Clark 2011) and re-constructed by experience resulting in the multiple interpretations that create the social realities in which people act (Flowers 2009; p. 3). It could be suggested that the initial ‘meaning-made’ is a primary motivator which persists until the time the learner feels satisfied (Park and Choi 2009), or, has achieved ‘what they set out to achieve’ (Gustafsson Mouwitz, 2008). This also implies that ‘meaning-made’ is mutable (Gibbons Bylsma 1984) and subject to further co/re-construction; adjustment; or complete abandonment. Research philosophy After extensive ‘Adult learner’ research and talking with tutors that instruct adult learners’ highlighted a distinct difference in the approaches from which children (Pedagogy – teaching method) and adults (Andragogy – teach how to learn) are taught. The implementation of informal learning methods, however, appears to have dominance in the adult education field (Gibbons Bylsma 1984). Therefore, in order to shape and advance the theory, research design and instrument/s required conducting a focussed literature review of several learning theories (see fig 1); namely, Knowles’s Andragogy Theory (Houde 2006), Cross’s Characteristics of Adult Learners (CAL) (Kohl-Frey and Schmid-Ruhe 2007; Crittenton Women’s Union 2012), Margin (Gibbons Bylsma, 1984) and Proficiency Theory (Gustafsson Mouwitz, 2008). Fig. 1 is showing the associated theories that characterize adult learners’ What becomes problematic is; adult learning has not been researched as vigorously as others areas of education, so the real challenge will be – as Hodkinson and Macleod (2010) encountered to anchor the line of enquiry in a combined paradigmatic harbor. In contrast to Hodkinson and Macleod (2010), the upcoming report will be combining the aforementioned theories with the following paradigms’ as they display a distinct homogeneity. Specifically, social (E891 Part 2: Action 2.5), and cognitive constructionism (De Abreu 2000), Interpretivism (E891 Part 2: Action 2.4; Gage 1989) with quantitative and qualitative data collection i.e. mixed methodology. A critical review of the initial report by Street (2013) and Holmes (2013) exemplified the scarcity of knowledge and understanding some had on the associated theories. Both commented on differing aspects of the line of enquiry, but these were conceptual in nature. Street (2013) illustrated that the researcher must remain aware of the macro/micro societal effect that the learning environment has on the adults lived/shared experience and Holmes (2013) suggested that there needed to be a better fit to the realities of the adult learner. With this in mind I re-conceptualized the report and reflected more specifically on the feedback and guidance. Therefore, in order to steer the paradigms so that they pull in the same direction, the aforementioned theories naturally occurring and overlapping dimensions will be grouped (i.e. constant comparison method; Cohen et al., 2000; p. 151) by their substantive statements (i.e. content analysis; Gillham, 2000; p. 137) and used to engender questions. This process generated four themes that naturally expanded upon their shared features. Social contact and Relationships Goal and relevancy orientated External expectations Internal expectations In order to check for consistencies/inconsistencies (Denscombe, 1999; p. 217-8) between the questionnaires i.e. Phase 1 and Phase 2 and interview responses both datasets will be triangulated to assess the overall motivation/s toward participatory behaviour i.e. cross-sectional design (Bryman, 2006; p. 104). This ‘Mutual’ approach (Armitage and Keeble-Allen, 2007) will be implemented during the adult learners’ regular session/s, which should (1) reduce bias (Nederhof, 1985) and attrition (Torgerson 2009), (2) be more pragmatic than experimental research (Torgerson 2009), (3) increase internal validity, reliability and research quality, (4) support external validity and (5) decrease demand characteristics due to any researcher effects. Research enquiries can be polarized into qualitative and quantitative classifications based on how phenomena are represented (Ercikan and Roth, 2006). But, the researcher firmly believes; if representative qualitative and quantitative data have shared aspects that are dependent on their counterpart for completeness (Ercikan and Roth, 2006; p.16; Bryman, 2006; Bryman, 2007), then the incorporation of cross-validation is warranted to best serve this enquiry. This strategy should ensure internal validity; especially when considering using complementary methods (Armitage and Keeble-Allen, 2007). Moreover, as these quantitative and qualitative counterparts contain a fundamental element of the interactive dependency that is shared, and required, for individual understanding i.e. the connectivity of interactivity and the influence on representative individuality then the research must be aware to consider that both methods have shared and conflicting elements. Consequently, when considering multidisciplinary approaches, mixed methods i.e. quantitative and qualitative and triangulation one must be aware that incommensurability can exist between them. Brannen (2005) suggests that some methods become more feasible than others and deemed a better ‘fit’ as [they] provide more sensitivity when investigating complex social phenomena. Hence, certain methods, used in conjunction can become less than complimentary with the other. Additionally, Yin (2006) suggests that the ability to tighten the use of mixed methods so that they do in fact occur as part of a single study requires integration. The claim is that, the more that a single study integrates mixed methods, the more that mixed methods research, as opposed to multiple studies, is taking place (Yin, 2006). Furthermore, Houghton et al., (2010) highlight one of the ethical challenges, which have important implications for qualitative research, practical examples and solutions. The unpredictability of qualitative research means that an a priori prescription for ethical conduct is not always possible. Therefore, the researcher must be constantly mindful of the on-going impact that the research might have on those involved, while simultaneously being ethically sensitive and morally competent Although, mixing methods does provide an inferential narrative to the statistical outputs from quantitative analysis, it might not sufficiently negate the qualitative and quantitative dichotomy (Yin, 2006), or, necessarily produce the expected scholarly standard for presenting credible evidence (Maclure, 2005). These qualitative and quantitative complements are noticeably even arguably intrinsic facets of social/cognitive interaction/functioning; hence, the methods used to collect data in this enquiry will be trying to procure what happens when the internal interact/s with an external influence/s (Yin, 2006). This illustration provides a start for thinking about yet other types of mixed method research. The point is, if a relationship is completely absent— particularly where two or more methods address wholly different dependent, independent, or descriptive variables—the mixed methods are likely to form separate studies, not a single study (Yin, 2006). All these influences are important and relevant, but they are only some of the processes that, together, comprise a complex social world and unfortunately; understanding that the relevance and value assigned to learning by adults’ highlights the importance induced, does not necessarily liberate them (Hacking 1999; p. 2) from any disenfranchisement they could feel. Likewise, the researcher understands that the aforementioned factors are not the only variables that are existent; however, the researcher is of the opinion that those factors (see fig. 3 + 4) are the most prominent from the observations made and literature review conducted. Research Design Fig. 2 is illustrating the design and flow of data analysis that establishes the internal validity, reliability and quality of the research enquiry. Historical background Considering participation in adult learning since 1996 we see it has remained around 40% for those of working age (16 – 69) for seventeen years. These were either currently participating, or had recently participated in the last three years. Of those that did participate, there is an equivalent amount that has not participated since leaving full time education. Although, 80% of students’ currently participating intend on continuing in further education after they have completed the present course (see Tab.1). Whilst participating in Further Education and Lifelong Learning I observed a possible explanation for the existence of these variances (that being relevance and value). A possible explanation for the disordinal interaction (percentages decrease in the ‘Likely to learn in the future’ group whilst percentages for ‘Unlikely to learn in the future’ group increase) demonstrated in table 1 could be; the further in years an adult moves away from education the less relevance and value they attribute to returning to it. Or, is it as Siraj-Blatchford (2010) may suggest; that the adults are overscheduled and more committed to sustaining the home environment and maintaining a career with ‘on the job’ training. Multimodal Heuristics Informal learning is seemingly multimodal i.e. being valuable and relevant to the matter at hand and socially constructed through long/short term interactions (GTC 2006). The informal learning mechanisms that mediate influence shapes learning environments’ (Evans, et al., 2010; p. 6), cognitive processes and our social interactions (Evans, et al., 2010; p. 6). ‘Meaning’ then, is co/re-constructed by experience resulting in the multiple interpretations that create the social reality in which people act (Flowers 2009; p. 3). And as Vygotsky would state; context affects cognitive and by way of behavioural activities (De Abreu, 2000; p. 3) Bruner’s suppositional framework suggests that learners form new ideas or theories based upon what they already know (GTC 2006). His theory of learning, not only, related to the way childrens thinking developed, but it could also be applied to adults learning new and unfamiliar material (GTC 2006). Learners, as Bruner proposes, are creators and thinkers through the use of inquiry (GTC 2006). The process of which how learners dynamically construct knowledge is heavily in focus: implying the transformation of information, which suggests that Bruner’s theory of Constructivism falls into a cognitive domain (GTC 2006). Learners are provided with opportunities to construct new knowledge and new meaning from authentic experiences (Brockmann 2011). As a result, this exposes the pivotal role Multimodal Heuristics start to have when adults’ decide to return to education. For instance, a parent can reassure a frightened child that ‘shadow monsters do not exist!’ Although, a sibling can suggest leaving the light on to scare the monsters’ away. This indicates that informal learning can alter our worldview (e.g. ‘When did you stop believing in Santa?’) if it is seen to offer a plausible solution. This supports the concept of how informal learning can contribute to our understanding, cognitive processes (De Abreu 2000), social interactions, and the associated behaviours (Schwartz 1995; p. 5). These multimodal components; not only determine the level of commitment and motivation (Park Choi 2009) that is ascribed to the retention of relevant and valuable information (Gibbons Bylsma, 1984; p. 23), but also contributes to the ease of transfer and retrieval of that information (Ekey 2012). The characteristically pragmatic nature of adult learners’ (Abdullah, et al., 2008; Kohl-Frey and Schmid-Ruhe 2007; Crittenton Women’s Union 2012) also demonstrates this need/requirement for information to have applicability to their life. This is determined by the perceived applicability it has to their future experiences and interaction. The internal dimensions of meaning-making are also multimodal (Clark 2011) and seemingly derived from the combination of the value and relevance (or Multimodal Heuristics adults’ decide, through cognitive appraisal, their own level of involvement) assigned by the adult to measure applicability. Consequently, we could suggest that this is an ad hoc contribution to our social cognition (Aronson et al., 2005; p.57 – 64; De Abreu 2000; p. 4), our availability heuristics (Rules of thumb; Aronson et al., 2005; p. 74 75) and the associated behavior and schemas (Aronson et al., 2005; p. 59 61), which then assist navigation of social environments’. Unfortunately, understanding that the relevance and value assigned to learning by adults’ highlights the importance induced, does not necessarily liberate adults’ (Hacking 1999; p. 2) from the disenfranchisement they could feel in institutions where learning is delivered primarily from a traditionally pedagogical approach. Similarly, these interactions are situational and experienced directly by participation, so it will be difficult to generalize the results further than adult learning. Theory development Essentially, humans tend to seek out information that confirms what they think/believe to be most relevant or true to their experiences and/or future interactions; a relative cost-benefit/means-end (Evans, et al., 2010; p. 6) cognitive appraisal that enables Multimodal Heuristic co/re-construction (Clark 2011). This process begins to filter out information that is considered worthless. The cost-benefit (Primary appraisal) and means-end analyses (Secondary appraisal), along with the personal value and relevance adults’ assign to learning (‘rule of thumb’ Gustafsson, L., Mouwitz, L. (2008); p. 5) appear to be hierarchical and Maslowian in nature. Additionally, an adult must consider, through means-end analysis, the benefit of actively participating and building upon their knowledge and experience, throughout their participation in learning. Ultimately mediating their need for satisfaction i.e. Socio-emotional negotiation and selectivity (Houde 2006). As a result, for the adult to consider participation Multimodal Heuristics must negotiate support for expectation and assess the benefit knowledge, learning and education have in recompense for reorganizing multiple obligations, and competing priorities (Evans, et al., 2010; p. 12). Therefore, is socio-emotional negotiation and selectivity a process of fragmenting information so that it creates a heuristic commensurability with an individual’s normative social and cognitive functioning, which therefore, influences behaviour i.e. influential connectivity of socio-cognitive interactivity affecting the potentials for action? Fig. 3 is showing the internal framework of the decision making, and meaning-making, mechanisms that help generate mental constructs of multimodal heuristics. To some degree, we can compare the assessment of value and relevance to Gustafsson Mouwitz (2008) description of Proficiency Theory, and, means-end and cost-benefit analyses to McClusky’s Margin Theory (1974, as quoted in Gibbons Bylsma 1984). These theories emphasize a need to be competent at tasks’ whilst being realistic about certain physical, mental and social capabilities. If there is conflict between primary and secondary appraisals this could be seen as a violation of expectation (Deffenbacher 1993), which may account for drop-out rates, serial signers’, absenteeism, non-participation in task relevant activities, specific course popularity, the cost-benefit/means-end analysis (Evans, et al., 2010; p. 6; Geertz 1993; p. 4 5) for staying the course and societal perception of lifelong learning (Tab. 1). For instance, after asking my students’ (12 in total) if they had any questions about what had been learnt, they responded with â€Å"what would I do if†¦?† and â€Å"When would I use†¦?† As there were only subtle variations in discourse, in regards to relevance and value, I feel this highlights (1) what comprises Multimodal Heuristic co-construction, and (2) what is required from information when it is presented outside of their interpretation of it. Moreover, adults maintain autonomy (Gibbons Bylsma 1984) by performing a cost-benefit analysis to justify their participation; being that peripheral or full (Swan 2005; p. 5). Firstly this, amongst others mentioned, will form the basis of ‘what counts as value and relevance evidence’, and, from which, quantitative data will be collected (questionnaire). Lastly, the quantitative data will be qualitatively complemented with a semi-structured interview to produce a rich narrative and attain thick descriptions (Geertz 1993). The semi-structured interview will be conducted with a subset of the surveyed group and will represent a cross-section of the adult learners’ in that group i.e. single parent, co-parent and a single male/female with no dependants. And as Denscombe (1999) and Brockmann (2011) found; interaction is situational and experienced directly by participation, making it essential to respect [their] views, with, further recognition given to the possibility that [their] priorities may not reflect the general consensus view or official theory. For example, Gustafsson Mouwitz (2008) have reported; what is valued and encouraged in formal learning environments lacks to varying degrees explicit relevance in the workplace. Therefore, adults must demand a greater degree of relevance, value and satisfaction when deciding to return to, and participating in, education (Abdullah, et. al. 2008; Houde 2006). Fig. 4 is showing the internal framework of secondary appraisal that aims to justify the decision made and validate the perception of learning by paralleling meaning-made with the realities of the study. Illustrating, not only that the individual agency of these interpretations of relevance and value are co/re-constructed (Clark 2011) cognitively (GTC 2006) and socially (Hacking 1999), but also that adults’ apply this form of Heuristic Multimodality when seeking satisfaction from having their expectations fulfilled. Park Choi (2009) have reported that relevance and satisfaction, being sub-dimensions of motivation, are known to be interrelated with various course-related issues. Even though the societal influences mentioned in this report can modify (1) the assessment of relevance and (2) affect the personal satisfaction adults cultivate (Park Choi, 2009) they can also mediate and reinforce participatory behavior (Park Choi, 2009) by enhancing the importance adults’ induce when deciding an academic and/or social level of involvement (Gibbons Bylsma 1984). Furthermore, students’ have asserted that relevance is a significant mediator in their assignment of value. Many students’ have commented that relevance paralleled the value assigned to learning and their specific choice of subject(s). These statements were observed over time and place using a relative constant comparison method (Cohen et al., 2000; p. 151). Their comments demonstrated the application of a cost-benefit and means-end analysis e.g. â€Å"How relevant is†¦in the big scheme of things?†, â€Å"When would I use†¦?† and â€Å"I don’t see the relevance? Evidently, the use of Multimodal Heuristics acts as a mechanism that could also increase commitment, dedication and motivation (Park Choi 2009). In constant comparison data are compared across a range of situations, times, groups of people, and through a range of methods (Cohen et al., 2000; p. 151 2). The process resonates with the methodological notion of triangulation. The constant comparison method involves four stages: Comparing incidents and data that are applicable to each category, comparing them with previous incidents in the same category and with other data that are in the same category Integrating these categories and their properties Bounding the theory Setting out the theory The subjective ontological/epistemological view, research design and methodology exhibited in this report is sufficient and necessary to explore this direction of enquiry, if it were absent, it would prove problematic supporting a theory with an accompanying objective approach that advocates detachment (Flowers 2009; E891 Part 2: Action 2.2; Gage 1989; E891 Part 2: Action 2.5), when, in this case, it is more advantageous to explore the subjectivity of individual agency, participatory behaviour and situational experiences, motivation, and, the personal value and relevance assigned to learning, as these are closer to the truth. Instrument Design There will be two distinct phases to data generation; firstly, questions will be formulated from each of the four themes that CAL, Andragogy and Margin and Proficiency theories appear to create and then randomly assigned (Nederhof, 1985) to a questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of each question will be conducted to address whether the aforementioned multi-dimensionalities of adult learners’ are being considered. The strength of the trend in the agreement/disagreement should build a picture of the shared experiences. These questions will then be relocated back to the themes that created them, scored (Likert Scale; the higher the score the more relevance and value is attributed) and compared with the descriptive analysis to, not only generate a semi-structured small group interview schedule (Gillham, 2000), but also to get a sense of what is personally valuable and relevant about learning. This is an attempt to demonstrate; how meeting these multi-dimensionalities may be instrumental in maintaining learner participation (Park and Choi 2009). Furthermore, by mapping these realities, establish whether they support the general consensus view of these adult learning theories. An opportunity sampled group (16 – 35+) will be surveyed using this questionnaire (13 in total) with a small group interview being administered to a subset of the surveyed group (5 in total). Ideally, this subset should be representative of the adult learners’ in that educational facility. Even though the whole group will be opportunistically surveyed; in phase 2 every effort will be made to be more purposive. In order to support internal validity and ensure the reduction of any bias the incorporation of a ‘social desirability’ measure (Nederhof, 1985; SDR) will be added to the questionnaire. Certain questions will be cross referenced with one another to assess whether the adult learners’ are responding in a socially desirable way. This local blocking technique should increase the internal validity of the questionnaire, enhance the internal consistency of the small group interview questions, reduce bias and maintain rigour when all the data is analysed. This should also allow individual agency (E891 Part 2: Action 2.4; Gage 1989; Denscombe 1999), shared experience and the personal value and relevance attributed to learning to be highlighted. Due to the amount of data that could have been reported the evaluation will be specifically limited to the triangulation narratives of the ‘Theme Summaries’, interview data i.e. content and descriptive analysis (Clark, 2011). The researcher firstly formulated questions from these naturally occurring themes and searched for consistencies and inconsistencies (Denscombe, 1999) between the summary narratives (Gillham, 2000) and statistical outputs from the descriptive analyses (Bryman, 2007). Phase 1 As there were 30 questions generated from the four themes the in-depth analysis of each question will be triangulated and presented in the theme summaries. In an attempt to expose any consistencies/inconsistencies (Denscombe, 1999; p. 217-8) in the responses the data will be compared against the learning theories that created them: ensuring validity. Consequently, due to the amount of quantitative data generated from the in-depth analysis of the individual questions, this report will only include the second stage of Phase 1 i.e. descriptive analysis and theme summary triangulation. The interview responses from Phase 2 will be further triangulated with these summaries and content analysed to highlight the adult learners’ realities and ascertain what influences their decisions and motivates them to return too education i.e. by constant comparison method. Theme Summaries Social contact and Relationships Q1, Q2, Q6, Q7, Q17 Q19 and Q30 The adult learners’ appear to value social interaction and feelings of reciprocal respect whilst participating in learning, which demonstrates that the adult learners’ value a sense of ‘belonging’ (16/21). However, there is a small percentage that does not see ‘belonging’ as being of value. Therefore, the feelings of reciprocal respect and support cannot be generalised as influencing their decision to continue in learning. Internal expectations Q10, Q13, Q14, Q15, Q18, Q22, Q26, Q28 and Q29 This theme relates to the adult learners satisfaction. Satisfaction, being a sub-dimension of motivation, is something that must be regarded as paramount in the adult learning experience. The consistent attendance of the adult learners’ at the session/s is testament to their satisfaction with the course and the delivery thereof (18/27). In essence, if the adult learner considers that the potential learning opportunity is not transferable to the workplace, is not satisfied, or perceives it as inadequate at providing improvement to their problem solving capabilities could ultimately diminish their motivation to participate. Goal and relevancy orientation Q3, Q4, Q5, Q9, Q11, Q16, Q20, Q23, Q25 and Q27 External expectations Q8, Q12, Q21 and Q24 As these last two dimensions, respectively and comparatively, share a greater degree of similarity they will be interpretatively combined and presented together. Looking at these from a political perspective; the demand for lifelong learning to have greater prevalence in society sets an industry standard that demands conformity to it. Subsequently, this appears to facilitate the re/co-construction of self-directedness and the personal interests of adult learners’ so that they begin to mirror ‘what is required of them’; which is indicative of a cost-benefit/mean-ends analysis. Therefore, some adult learners’ might be so focussed or motivated on getting the qualification that they adjust their sense of self-direction in order to reorganise their lives and satisfy what is required of them i.e. Mutability for the betterment of self. It could also be suggested that the pressure too have certain qualifications encourages participatory behaviour in some adult learners’ and determines the relative conformity to industry demands and learning the required skills i.e. something they adapt to rather than adapted for them (Q8, Q9 and Q10). Conformity, in this sense, would then act as a pre-determinant to achievement; the perception of economic sustainability and upward mobility and what value, and relevance, learning has. Not surprisingly, this could be one reason why thousands of people leave their jobs: they only took the job because it is what was demanded of them, which is in direct conflict with their personal interests, self-directedness and life goals. Which also illustrates that cognition can be influenced by social interaction and be co/re-constructed by experience and meaning-made. The questionnaire included items that let the participant assess the value and relevance they attribute to learning as an adult. The overall strength of this agreement was guided by their experiences as an adult learner. However, some of the diagnostic questions seemed to be complex and ask two things of the participant. As this is a major source of error (Hammersley et al., 2003) the validity of those questions will be scrutinised as the participants may have weighted one aspects of the complex question more important than the other aspect, hence, an adumbrated response i.e. a decrease in validity. However, all of the responses were reduced to one mean average for that individual question, and as these were pooled from the four themes that characterise adult learners’ it reduced sampling error and bias. Furthermore, as there was a two stage analysis in phase one the validity of the research instrument is strengthened; especially when we factor in the use of the SDR measure to control for bias (Nederhof, 1985) and the encouragement of omission (Hammersley et al., 2003) when the participant had no opinion. What we cannot suggest at this stage of the analysis, however, is that the shared experience led to a shared meaning. As Denscombe (1999) ascertained; the perceptions of the individual are not always consistent with the general consensus view (Brockmann, 2011) of the group as a whole. This extends to the meaning-made and the individual nature of the meaning-making process. The surveyed group cultivated differing levels of relevance and value from their shared experiences. But, this was seemingly determined by the level of relevance and value that was extrapolated from their continued participation. Hence, the individual agency of meaning-making is an outcome of the level of value and relevance attributed to the shared experiences of learning as an adult, the level of satisfaction and a sense of mutability for the betterment of self. Phase 2: Narrative of Qualitative data Before the triangulation, constant comparison and content analysis the researcher must point out that (1) this was a small scale study, (2) the interviews was held in a small group so full disclosure by each participant was not always possible and (3) the results should not be over generalised to other adult learning situations. All that is being sought is an insight in to the connectivity of socio-cognitive interactivity and the subsequent influence on representative individuality; the multidimensionality of participatory behaviour and what the adults felt their motivations for returning to education were and still are. This should (1) map the external/internal influences on the adult learner; (2) expose the dimensions behind this seeming connectivity of socio-cognitive interactivity that create the potential/s for designated types of action i.e. Multimodal Heuristics and (3) if the analysis supports the researcher’s theory and the adult learning theories that feature in this enquiry. Some of the interviewee’s shared a meaning to one degree, but had a different meaning-making process before reaching that decision; the salient feature was a shared-meaning in a shared-goal in reaching university or attending a higher level course from the successful completion of the current course of study. This gave them a common ground on which to build upon ‘what learning means’ to them on an individual basis whilst allowing the shared-meaning element distinguish and define their individual social relationships in the class; whom they sought clarification from; what level of involvement they chose and what comparative judgements they begin to make on others in the session/s. Walter: â€Å"Well I think if you do†¦ I think if you do†¦like, we are social people, things†¦we are social and that’s that, that’s what we are†¦we are designed to be social people, if we exclude ourselves we do not, you know, we lose all basic human function, it’s like the guy at the front, you know he doesn’t †¦ he can exclude himself, he doesn’t do anything, he doesn’t enjoy being here, doesn’t have any excitement about coming and learning†¦if you exclude yourself from everyone else you’ll probably not learn!† Serena: â€Å"I like learning with a group but then it’s dependent on what I do with that information†¦but when it’s writing things down or posters and stuff I can’t have other people touching.† This illustrates that the need to feel self-directed and sometimes being free from outside interference is just one of the commonalities we start to see in the participants responses. Although, some of the interviewee’s do highlight that; Sally: â€Å"I came because I needed to do it, but now I quite, I’ve more motivation to do it because I enjoy it.† Therefore, the individual agency of meaning-making is, not only an outcome of the level of value and relevance attributed to the shared experiences of learning as an adult, the level of satisfaction and a sense of mutability for the betterment of self, but also the means/ends-cost/benefit interconnectivity seen in their decision-making process i.e. motivated to do it and their continued participation in the session/s that seemingly contributes further to the mutability for the betterment of self in these adult learners. The individual meaning-made is a product of these connective interactivities varying – and individually decided high/low levels of cost/benefit the course has and what perceived means/end reward the course provides for successful completion i.e. the multimodal heuristic factors that led to participatory behaviour and satisfaction. The shared-meaning is an accidental affinity that becomes synchronous with other people that are pursuing a similar goal as them. This suggests that they share similar educational values and relevancies due to their common or shared goals. The shared-meaning dimensions presumably start to mediate the differing high/low connective interactivity level in the cost/benefit and means/end analyses. Furthermore, this also starts to define and distinguish individual social relationships; who we seek advice and clarification from; what level of involvement we chose and what comparative judgements we make on others i.e. asynchronous affinity with others. The comments from these interviewee’s also highlights the need to feel proficient and competent about the material in the course and where they culture this confidence. It seems the more confident the adult learner gets about understanding the material and being able to discuss, question and seek clarification on their understanding the more proficient and competent they feel. This bolsters their feelings of satisfaction and adds to their motivation to continue through reducing the physical and mental sense of effort i.e. cost and/or means and increasing the perception of benefit cultured from continuation in the session/s. e.g. internal expectations and social relationships. This could be defined as a beneficial compromise for the betterment of self being the mediation of the perceived value social contact offers in raising confidence, increasing feelings of proficiency and reducing our fear of incompetency. The commentaries also point toward Margin theory (Gibbons Bylsma, 1984) in the manner of how ‘power’ and ‘load’ i.e. the amount we can manage is balanced with the effort we can assign to it and ‘expansive’ and ‘restrictive’ perceptions of future time i.e. the older you are the more urgent something becomes also contributes to the motivations of the adult learner (Gibbons Bylsma, 1984). So, is motivation the product of a restrictive ‘future time’ perspective creating a behaviourally urgent response to the realisation of your current educational inequities; therefore, adding to the perception of the reduction in opportunities for sustaining economic upward mobility? For example the following conversation illustrates the reasoning behind this question; Researcher: ‘so does anyone find, you know, that helps them decide to do a course, or, was it a combination of both things were like valuable and relevant to you as well?’ Walter: ‘Yeah, yeah†¦that’s the reason I’m here, you know you can’t get a well-paid job without English and Maths!’ Leroy: †¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢and without those I can’t precede on to university’ Researcher: ‘So you can see the as an industry standard kind of then?’ Walter: ‘Yeah, this is the industry standard’ Researcher: ‘So to actually progress you need these things to progress?’ Walter: ‘Yeah†¦yeah†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Leroy: ‘Like to myself, like to have this qualification would make me feel better about it†¦but,’ Researcher: ‘Yeah†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Leroy: ‘†¦it’s a requirement’ Researcher: ‘yeah like a stepping stone’ Leroy: ‘yeah.’ Therefore, these adult learners’ may just see the benefit of having the qualification to progress beyond where they are now. This could also suggest that these adults’ are fully aware that the ‘real world’ applicability of certain subjects are determined by the industry demand for that subject, making a qualification economically more relevant and valuable to these adult learners’. We could theorise that society has a shared understanding about what industry requires of the workforce and how this requirement places a demand on the learner to rearrange their lives in order to participate in learning. Therefore, shared meaning in society could be facilitated by a shared understanding of what it demands of society, which supports the theory that adult learners’ must assign more personal relevance, value and expectations of satisfaction to learning before there is the motivation to return to education i.e. is there a beneficial compromise between what I want and what they require. And as can be seen in the descriptive analysis of Q20, Q21 and Q22.These questions relate to social influence and societies perception of value and relevance assigned to learning. The adult learner agrees that the decision to attend a course of study was suggested to them (Q20) and that this social influence/encouragement essentially provides the persuasive reinforcement to their implicit understanding that; learning increases an adult’s chances of employment (Q21). The adult learners’ also feel that the support they receive from the different sources of this social influence/encouragement is at a level which permits their participation on the course of study. We could again theorise that an individual knows what is demanded of them in the employment market, but they seek confirmation on what they already know. This suggests that ‘meaning’ is socially co/re-constructed by the individual seeking confirmation on their present understanding in order to reinforce their decision, and by way of, increase motivation to return to learning. Furthermore, the adult learners’ do not feel they have to make allowances to attend a course, as long as the scheduled session/s is at a convenient time for them to attend i.e. the conscious effort to avoid the conflicts between personal obligations and scheduled session/s. Moreover, showing that, for these adult learners’, the course of study has value and is personally and economically relevant to them. And as it was outlined in the ‘Theory Development’ section of this report; we can compare the assessment of value and relevance to Gustafsson Mouwitz (2008) description of Proficiency Theory, and, means-end and cost-benefit analyses to McClusky’s Margin Theory (1974, as quoted in Gibbons Bylsma 1984). These theories emphasize a need to be competent at tasks’ whilst being realistic about certain physical, mental and social capabilities. Moreover, because the theories that were used in this study have overlapping dimensions (e.g. Q3, Q4 and Q12 overlap Social contact and Relationships; Goal and Relevancy orientation and External Expectations) with each dimension seemingly providing a piece to the decisional mà ©lange that affects the internal expectations i.e. individual agency of the adult learner. We could therefore suggest that Multimodal Heuristics and co/re-constructive social influence, not only becomes more evident when motivation towards participation is being established and/or maintained, but may also be one of the key components in the processes that assist the transformation of identity. Hence, as a sense of belonging, competency, proficiency and satisfaction are valued and relevant to the adult learner and evolve as they evolve; as do their identities. Equally, in a sociocultural ontology progress in learning is viewed along trajectories of participation and growth of identity, so both competency and belonging matter in understanding learning. It is for these reasons that a sociocultural ontology describes learning as a transformation of identity. And as the report is looking at the macro and micro-structural influences on the adult learner and how that comes to mediate and motivate them toward participation we can suggest quite firmly that identity transformation is closely tied to multimodal heuristics which is apparently mediated by a co/re-construction between the connectivity of social/cognitive interactivity thus having an impact on the identity formation of the adult learner. So the relevancy and value that is selected from external sources is fragmentally factored from differing micro and macro-structural influences and negotiated in to cognitive constructs i.e. internally mediated hence facilitating the decisional components that create the motivation for, and support continued participation towards, designated types of action. Discussion, implications and conclusions So, are social contact and relationships the result of synchronous affinities? Is the use of multimodal heuristics an actual contributor to identity transformation? All that can be suggested is that the results support the theory of multimodal heuristics and the connectivity of interactivity and imply that motivation is established through the individual deliberately, and sometimes vicariously, extracting information from these proximal and distal influences. Hence, social/cognitive collocation comes to, not only reinforce their decision to participate in designated types of action, but also – to a greater or lesser extent impacts upon the transformation of identity. But, we must keep in mind that this is paralleled with a balance between the beneficial compromises for the betterment of self and the perceived value social contact i.e. belonging offers in raising confidence, increasing feelings of proficiency and reducing the fear of incompetency. The real implication of these results is the noticeable benefit of informal conversations being used to reinforce learnt knowledge. The participants suggest that more time for reflection and confirmation would go some way to aiding the retention of new information, how the information actually relates to their personal circumstances and how this also contributes to feelings of belonging, proficiency, competency and feelings of increased confidence. For example; Walter : â€Å"†¦if you have a conversation with someone, say after this class, you’ll remember that conversation better than you would, you know than someone standing at the front of the class going ‘this guy wrote this poem about this† And like the small child that is afraid of ‘shadow monsters’ and leaves the light on; the sessions could benefit from the incorporation of small group/whole class learning reinforcement dyads of informal conversations. This would then start to determine the level of commitment and motivation (Park Choi 2009) that is ascribed to the retention of relevant and valuable information (Gibbons Bylsma, 1984; p. 23), and further contribute to the ease of transfer/retrieval of the current learning material/s and any new information (Ekey 2012). In conclusion, if adults are autonomous, self-directed and pursue their personal interests and goals then; when an adult decides to return to education the course of study must display a greater degree of relevance to the adults. If the course of study is perceived as having relevance, it (1) fulfils their need for feeling autonomous, (2) allows the adult to make an informed decision as to the value it has, (3) contributes to the continuation of feelings of self-directedness and (4) also contributes to their perceptions of being closer to achieving their goals’; thus adding value. Especially when we factor in that adult learners’ are complying with requirements’ laid down by someone else and may need to reorganise multiple obligations and competing priorities in order to participate. Another reason that these adult learners’ generally value the social interaction, support and reciprocal respect they receive whilst attending a course of study. Hence, the sense of belonging would be enhanced if there were more opportunities for interaction. Therefore, creating more opportunities for reflection between learners’ could, not only, reinforce learning, but also support the feelings of belonging through increasing the opportunities for discussion on how the material covered in that session/s contextually relates to them. Moreover, focussing on enhancing feelings of proficiency by allowing the adult learner to co/re-construct their current understanding through reflecting upon it with learners’ that share the same learning experience and synchronous and asynchronous affinities. References Abdullah, M, Parasuraman, B, Muniapan, B, Koren, S Jones, ML. (2008) ‘Motivating factors associated with adult participation in distance learning program’ International Education Studies, 1 (4), pp. 104-109. [online] ‘Mutual Research Designs: Redefining Mixed Methods Research Design’, pp. 29 – 35, Taken from ERCM (2007) ‘6th European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies’ Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon [online] (accessed on 18/06/2013) Aronson, E., Wilson. T. D. and Akert, R. M. (2005) ‘Social Psychology’, 5th Edition, New Jersey, Pearson Education Inc, Cpt. 3, pp. 59 – 61, Cpt. 3 pp. 57 – 64, Cpt. 3, pp. 74 75 Brannen, J. (2005) ‘Mixed methods research: a discussion paper’, ESRC National Centre for Research Methods, Review Paper 5. [online] (accessed on 01/08/2013) Brockmann, M. (2011) ‘Problematizing short-term participant observation and multi-method ethnographic studies’, Ethnography and Education, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 229–43. [online] (accessed 18/04/2013) taken from The Open University (2013) ‘E891 Action 3.10: Short term Ethnography; Part 3: Research design and data production, Milton Keynes, The Open University Bryman, A. (2006) ‘integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how it is done?’ Sage Publications, London, vol. 6(1) 97–113. [online]

Friday, November 15, 2019

Free Billy Budd Essays: Innocence in Billy Budd :: Billy Budd Essays

Innocence in Billy Budd There is much to be said about innocence. If one is with innocence than one can do no wrong. But that is not all to be said. Innocence is not always a good thing. It could make one naive or blind to certain evils. Like in the case of Billy Budd. Billy was innocent from evil and therefore could not see the evil of John Claggart approaching him, out to destroy him. It is known Billy's innocence was his down fall by hiding the true evil from his eyes. But why was John Claggart out to destroy Billy?. There are several reasons why John Claggart attempts to destroy Billy Budd. John Claggart wants to destroy Billy because he is extremely wary of Billy's intentions. He has come to believe that Billy is planning a mutiny and wants to take over the ship. Claggart reports this to captain Vere saying," During today's chase and possible encounter I had seen enough to convince him that at least one sailor aboard was dangerous." Meaning that he felt Billy was against them. Claggart felt that Billy's big plan was to get in favor of all the men on the ship and then turn them against the captain. Captain Vere responds by having Billy and Claggart meet in private where Claggart can openly accuse Billy of this crime. Fortunately, Claggarts attempt to destroy Billy for mutiny fails because he is struck down by Billy in one blow, ending the matter, but opening a m uch more serious one. Claggart is also seen as attempting to destroy Billy due to his evil nature in general. Nothing depicts Claggart's evil nature better than the way he looks. His cleanly chiseled chin and cunning violet eyes that can cut lesser sailors with an evil glare. His pale yellow skin and jet black curly hair; they all contrast his character. He is out to destroy Billy because of the constant struggle of good and evil. Billy is innocent and cannot comprehend evil therefore making him good. People calling Billy "baby budd, and handsome sailor" just seem to contrast the good in him even more. Claggart was born evil and therefore is evil. Claggart would naturally be out to destroy Billy because he is what he is against. Just good vs. evil in a battle for control. That is why Claggart is naturally out to bring the downfall of Billy Budd.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

retail staff at the Tower of London

DecisionThe Southern Cross of our undertaking was developing a new inducements program for the retail staff at the Tower of London, to hike grosss made from the gross revenues of guidebooks, Gift Aid and of ranks to HRP. While the gross revenues and retail staff were highly satisfied with the operation of the current fiscal inducements program, it had come to the notice of the Human Resources section that the program was non agreeable to the brotherhoods ( which the staff members were members of ) . Another ground for presenting a new program, was to hike figures on gross revenues – as the Tower of London direction believed that grosss in gross revenues could be higher than what was presently being achieved. The initial procedure developed by us was simple – we started by run intoing with the HR Manager at the Tower and understanding his vision and the end product that he expected from us. His initial desire was for us to run into with other HR Directors in establishments similar to that of HRP – galleries, museum and the similar ; to derive a position from them on what sort of inducements were used in their organisations. Surprisingly, none of the other organisations had similar programs in topographic point – which left us to introduce and come up with a program that was alone in nature. The first measure in planing this inducement program – would be to place what motivates persons to execute at the Tower. Bing a sales-oriented squad, we clearly had to concentrate on doing the inducements attractive plenty to actuate employees into executing good above the. Therefore we began with speaking to employees at the Tower of London and acquiring their point of position on the changing of incentive programs. To get down with, most of the junior retail staff was really satisfied with the current inducement program that was in topographic point, except with the operation of the strategy – they complained about holds in having their inducements from HR. This aside, most staff were adamantly against any sort of alteration in this inducements system. The brotherhood representative in the Tower of London, who besides happened to be an admittances director, presented us with her positions on what the inducements programs should be like. From the point of the position of the brotherhood, she did hold that the current construction was non in maintaining with the Union ‘s positions on inducements. Given this, the director is besides one of the senior directors in-charge of the retailing staff – and was highly satisfied with the current system, and believed that it was working really good for the staff. Therefore, her solution to this was to was non to talk excessively much of the program at the Union meetings – non desiring the Union to raise concerns with the Tower of London direction about the nature of inducements that were provided. The position of the above mentioned director was besides shared by other senior directors at the Tower. They all believed that the system was all right and were non interested in conveying any drastic alterations to the wagess processes at the current minute, unless perfectly necessary. A consequent survey of the responses of all these stakeholders was so undertaken to uncover what formed the footing for our survey. We picked up on three cardinal issues upon which our solutions for a new program were based – that the staff decidedly wanted fiscal inducements and non non-financial inducements, that the supervisors needed to acquire some signifier of inducements and that the group construction could be used to a greater advantage to actuate persons. It is best to do a pick between programs instead than show merely one program and do determinations based on that. That was what prompted our determination to plan three inducement programs, all really different from each other – one based strictly on fiscal inducements, another on non-financial inducements, and eventually the 3rd one being a program which amalgamates both fiscal and non-financial inducements. To get down with, one of the obvious options was to go on with a program similar to that which the Tower of London had been following boulder clay now. The inducement program used over the last few old ages in the Tower was strictly fiscal in nature. The program included gross revenues marks for single staff members which were to be achieved in an unspecified clip period. On accomplishment of marks, staff members were awarded gift verifiers to a shop of their pick for a value of GBP 50. In line with this, the other sorts of fiscal inducements that could be offered are: a hard currency inducement, gift verifiers or even paid vacations. Keeping the Tower of London in head – this strategy is much better to run on for persons instead than on groups – it might turn out to be to expensive otherwise. Traveling on, we considered non-financial inducements a feasible option every bit good. Our suggestions for non-financial inducements can be more originative and ranged from presenting staff to repasts with the senior direction, holding bonus holiday hours to endow certifications, acknowledgment amongst equals and boxes of cocoas. The advantages of holding such a system are really evidently nest eggs for the company – these options are decidedly much cheaper and so holding a fiscal inducement strategy. These strategies are besides easier to run for groups. Finally, we strove to make a balance between the above mentioned programs – which would, most significantly satisfy all interest holders concerned. To understand and categorise the demands of persons and to place what motivates them, we used Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow had said that one time the basic physiological demands have been fulfilled, persons move onto other demands which need to be fulfilled such as the demand for self-actualization, safety demands and esteem demands. Emphasis was besides put on group working and the virtues we could pull from it in planing the intercrossed inducement program. Possibly one of the restrictions of working with groups within the gross revenues squads at the Tower of London is that within the gross revenues squads at the Tower of London is that the squads are all disproportionately sized, and to further any sort of competitory spirit would intend that the squads should hold equal Numberss. One of the ways of screening through this issue could intend proportionally spliting group marks to counterbalance for unequal Numberss. Another ground for concentrating so strongly on groups in this instance was because we saw this as an ideal state of affairs to implement non-financial inducements for employees – as these inducements would be much more valid in the context of groups instead than for persons. Finally, in footings of fulfilling all the stakeholders in the inducements plan – it became obvious to us that the 3rd program – the merger of fiscal and non-financial inducements was ideal. The program involves puting single gross revenues marks for the members of the retails staff – and giving the work groups cumulative marks, over and above that, which will be rewarded by non-financial inducements. The program while all encompassing, does show a few logistical job, the chief one being disposal for Human Resources. Motivation has therefore played a really critical function in the pick of concluding recommendation for the inducement program that we made for the Tower of London to utilize. We used the constructs of intrinsic and extrinsic motive extensively to specify persons would respond to different sorts of inducements and finally what would animate optimum public presentation from employees in the given scene at the Tower. While questioning employees, another concern that had been raised was that they were non being efficaciously communicated with when incentive programs were formulated, when any kind of alterations were being made, and when faced with holds in the wagess procedure ( inducements verifiers were about 3 months behind agenda ) . We believe that for our inducement program to be successful, free-flowing channels of communicating are necessary within the Tower of London. To accomplish this, we enclosed a bill of exchange of a communicating program – basically meant for better communicating between the senior direction at the Tower of London and the junior retail and gross revenues staff. Methodolgy – pros and cons

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Cyber Bullying Essay

Walking through the school door, she feels the sweat dripping down the side of her cheeks. Her stomach flips and flops, and her hands have an obvious tremble. The slamming lockers and running footsteps are enough to make her eyes swell with tears. The snickers behind her are all too familiar, but she is not prepared for the shove to the back and degrading names that follow. In a split second, her mind is made up. She turns around, heads out the door, and doesn’t look back. The computer, her cell phone, and now school. The cyber-bullies have stepped out of the screen and into face-to-face contact. With this new kind of bully on the rise and ruthless, is she the school’s responsibility? Schools should be held responsible for cyber bullying because the crime extends from the computer to the school setting. Studies indicate that cyber-bullying incidents have quadrupled in past five years (Ross). Cyber-bullying has become a huge issue recently. Every time you turn on the news there is another bullying, or a suicide related to bullying, incident being reported. Love is louder† has been a common phrase among celebrities and influential figures lately. They are trying to send out a message to their followers saying that bullying is not right and should not be tolerated. The expansion of communication technologies is widening the way bully’s can torture their victims. The fact of the matter is, technology is not going anywhere, so we need to figure out a way to put an end to cyber-bullies. Cyber-bullying is becoming a major problem and we all need to do our parts in figuring out what can be done to stop cyber-bullies in their tracks. Cyber-bullies will continue to be a threat to today’s youth until we take preventative measures against them. Before putting a stop to cyber-bullying we must understand why and how a cyber-bully works. After researching and analyzing informative articles on the topic, this research paper aims to inform and answer questions such as: what a cyber-bully is, how they work, whom they target, and how to stop them. By understanding how a cyber-bully works we will be able to better protect youth populations as technology grows. Approximately half of U. S. students are impacted by traditional bullying each school day (Ross). Cyber-bullying is technology powered and as technology expands it is getting harder and harder to see and prevent bullying from happening. Bullying over the Internet makes it easy for the tormenter to get away with their destructive behavior without any consequences. The article, â€Å"What is Cyberbullying: Bullying Comes Home† states, â€Å"Bullying is not new but thanks to the Internet teens are now being bullied at home. Online harassment is a serious problem† (Hardcaslte). Although the Internet has opened many doors to new opportunities, it has unfortunately taken bullying to another level. As the article, â€Å"Cyber Bullying Facts† states, â€Å"as the number of households with Internet access approaches saturation and cell phone ownership expands to the 100 million mark, so do the ways kids bully each other† (Ross). Anything sent out into cyberspace is very difficult, sometimes impossible, to remove. Therefore, being cyber-bullied can sometimes be much more severe than traditional bullying. Ann Frisen in the article, â€Å"Cyber-bullying: A Growing Problem† states, â€Å"This type of bullying can be more serious than conventional bullying. At least with conventional bullying the victim is left alone on evenings and weekends† (ScienceDaily). What exactly is ‘cyber-bulling’? The author of the article, â€Å"What is Cyberbullying: Bullying Comes Home† explains it as, â€Å"any harassment that occurs via the Internet† (Hardcastle). Cyber-bulling messages can be communicated through text, e-mails, instant messaging, web pages, blogs, chat rooms, or any other information communication technologies. For example, Michigan’s assistant attorney general, who is a grown adult, has been harassing the University of Michigan’s openly gay student body president. Andrew Shirvell, assistant Michigan attorney general, created a blog in April of 2010 targeting Chris Armstrong, University of Michigan’s student body president. On this blog he has posted many rude, untrue, and unnecessary comments towards Chris Armstrong, along with distorted pictures. According to the article, â€Å"Assistant Michigan AG targets openly gay college student† the author states, â€Å"Shirvell has published blog posts that accuse Armstrong of engaging in ‘flagrant sexual promiscuity’ with another male member of the student government; sexually seducing and influencing ‘a previously conservative male student’ so much so that the student, according to Shirvell, ‘morphed into a proponent of the radical homosexual agenda’† (Steward). Mr. Shirvell is clearly a first-hand example of a cyber-bully and this article goes to show that it’s not just kids bullying each other in school anymore; it’s much bigger than that. There have been at least three teen suicides in September after experiencing homophobic cyber-bullying. Who are the main victims targeted by cyber-bullies? According to the article, â€Å"Cyber-bullying Facts† Middle school and High school girls are twice as likely as boys to display cyber-bullying behaviors in the form of email, text, and chat, and only 20% of cyber-bullying victims tell their parents about the incident (Ross). Cyber-bullies target students, coworkers, neighbors, and even friends. Lately, there have been many reports of suicides related to bullying. For example, the recent death of Tyler Clementi, a freshman at Rutgers University, is an extreme case of cyber-bullying. The article, â€Å"Rutgers student death: Has Digital Age made students callous† informs, â€Å"Mr. Clementi killed himself on September 22nd, 2010. According to prosecutors, a few days earlier his roommate, Dharun Ravi, and another student, Molley Wei, used a Web cam to secretly transmit images of a sexual encounter between Clementi and another man. They intended to do so again on September 21† (Khadaroo). With cyber-bullying a bully can pick on people with less risk of being caught. People who you would not see bullying someone in school don’t have a problem using the Internet to bully their victims because you can’t see their initial reaction. Bullying cannot only hurt the victim emotionally it can also cause them to have frequent headaches, indigestion and vomiting, loss of sleep, loss of appetite, paranoia, and suicide. In Tyler Clementi’s case he was so overwhelmed by what had been done to him that he jumped off of the George-Washington Bridge. It is important for college campuses to promote tolerance for differences, including homosexuality. From the article, â€Å"Rutgers student death: Has Digital Age made students callous† the author states, â€Å"We are tempted to think that social-media technology drove the behavior, but as a truly ethical matter, the behavior has to be and should be considered human-driven, not technology driven† (Foulkrod). Harrisburg University of Science and Technology in Pennsylvania recently blocked the use of social media for a week to prompt discussions about its role in everyday life. Nobody wants to see this happen again; therefore, we need to come up with a solution to the problem. Some observers of today’s youth and media culture believe that today’s media environment could be desensitizing young people to the hurtful effects of their actions. What can be done to prevent cyber-bullying? Parents can start by talking specifically about yber-bullying and explain that is harmful and unacceptable behavior. Talk regularly with your child about on-line activities he or she is involved in, keep your home computer in easily viewable places, such as a family room or kitchen, and consider installing a filtering or blocking system (Ross). Also, you can â€Å"outline your expectations for responsible online behavior and clearly explain the consequences for inappropriate behavior† (Ross). The most important thing that can be done to stop a cyber-bully harassing you is to just not respond to the bully. Do not play into the bully’s games. Ignore the bully and tell a parent or teacher. While ignoring the bullying make sure to save all of the evidence so that if police need to be involved you will have it ready. In the article, â€Å"What is Cyberbullying: Bullying Comes Home† states, â€Å"Repeated or excessive harassment via email, forums or chat rooms is harassment and should involve the police. Threats of violence should also be reported to the police. Try to save all messages as evidence† (Hardcastle). Treat a cyber-bully like you would any other bully and they will lose their power. Another important way to prevent cyber-bullying attacks is if you see something going on don’t just be a bystander and let it happen, report it before anyone gets hurt. In conclusion, with the expansion of the Internet and social networking technologies cyber-bullying is becoming more common and more severe. The information presented in this research paper should give people a better understanding of what a cyber-bully is, how harmful they can really be, and how to prevent cyber-bullying from happening. This paper can be used to help victims realize they are not alone and should not give into a bully’s dangerous behaviors. This research paper is to inform society about what has been going on lately and how unacceptable and dangerous it is. Kids are killing themselves over photos, web posts, and videos posted by bullies using the Internet. Cyber-bullying is technology powered and will only get worse as technology becomes more widespread. Hopefully, this paper will help to inform today’s youth and parents. If you see any kind of bullying happening in front of you, stop it if possible, and then report it. Conclusion Cyberbullying is a growing issue in schools. Students have been in fights, brought guns to school, and even committed suicide because of being cyberbullied. This is an issue which is a growing problem and must be addressed. It is serious. By helping students research the issues around cyberbullying, it raises awareness for both students and staff. A WebQuest like this can make a real difference in school climate and student relations. Take a stand against cyberbullying with your classmates. Students will listen to other students more quickly than they will listen to an adult.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Triangles and Polygons on SAT Math Strategies and Practice Questions for Geometry

Triangles and Polygons on SAT Math Strategies and Practice Questions for Geometry SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips 25 to 30% of the SAT math section will involve geometry, and the majority of those questions will deal with polygons in some form or another. Polygons come in many shapes and sizes and you will have to know your way around them with confidence in order to ace those SAT questions on test day. Luckily, despite their variety, polygons are often less complex than they look, and a few simple rules and strategies will have you breezing through those geometry questions in no time. This will be your complete guide to SAT polygons- the rules and formulas for various polygons, the kinds of questions you’ll be asked about them, and the best approach for solving these types of questions. What is a Polygon? Before we talk about polygon formulas, let’s look at what exactly a polygon is. A polygon is any flat, enclosed shape that is made up of straight lines. To be â€Å"enclosed† means that the lines must all connect, and no side of the polygon can be curved. Polygons NOT Polygons Polygons come in two broad categories- regular and irregular. A regular polygon has all equal sides and all equal angles, while irregular polygons do not. Regular Polygons Irregular Polygons (Note: most all of the polygons on the SAT that are made up of five sides or more will be regular polygons, but always double-check this! You will be told in the question whether the shape is "regular" or "irregular.") The different types of polygons are named after their number of sides and angles. A triangle is made of three sides and three angles (â€Å"tri† meaning three), a quadrilateral is made of four sides (â€Å"quad† meaning four), a pentagon is made of five sides (â€Å"penta† meaning five), and so on. Most of the polygons you’ll see on the SAT (though not all) will either be triangles or some sort of quadrilateral. Triangles in all their forms are covered in our complete guide to SAT triangles, so let’s look at the various types of quadrilaterals you’ll see on the test. With polygons, you may notice that many definitions will fit inside other definitions. Quadrilaterals There are many different types of quadrilaterals, most of which are subcategories of one another. Parallelogram A parallelogram is a quadrilateral in which each set of opposite sides is both parallel and congruent (equal) with one another. The length may be different than the width, but both widths will be equal and both lengths will be equal. Parallelograms are peculiar in that their opposite angles will be equal and their adjacent angles will be supplementary (meaning any two adjacent angles will add up to 180 degrees). Rectangle A rectangle is a special kind of parallelogram in which each angle is 90 degrees. The rectangle’s length and width can either be equal or different from one another. Square If a rectangle has an equal length and width, it is called a square. This means that a square is a type of rectangle (which in turn is a type of parallelogram), but NOT all rectangles are squares. Rhombus A rhombus is a type of parallelogram in which all four sides are equal and the angles can be any measure (so long as their adjacents add up to 180 degrees and their opposite angles are equal). Just as a square is a type of rectangle, but not all rectangles are squares, a rhombus is a type of parallelogram (but not all parallelograms are rhombuses). Trapezoid A trapezoid is a quadrilateral that has only one set of parallel sides. The other two sides are non-parallel. Kite A kite is a quadrilateral that has two pairs of equal sides that meet one another. And here come the formulas- mwahaha! Polygon Formulas Though there are many different types of polygons, their rules and formulas build off of a few simple basic ideas. Let’s go through the list. Area Formulas Most polygon questions on the SAT will ask you to find the area or the perimeter of a figure. These will be the most important area formulas for you to remember on the test. Area of a Triangle $$(1/2)bh$$ The area of a triangle will always be half the amount of the base times the height. In a right triangle, the height will be equal to one of the legs. In any other type of triangle, you must drop down your own height, perpendicular from the vertex of the triangle to the base. Area of a Square $$l^2 \or {lw}$$ Because each side of a square is equal, you can find the area by either multiplying the length times the width or simply by squaring one of the sides. Area of a Rectangle $$lw$$ For any rectangle that is not a square, you must always multiply the base times the height to find the area. Area of a Parallelogram $$bh$$ Finding the area of a parallelogram is exactly the same as finding the area of a rectangle. Because a parallelogram may slant to the side, we say we must use its base and its height (instead of its length and width), but the principle is the same. You can see why the two actions are equal if you were to transform your parallelogram into a rectangle by dropping down straight heights and shifting the base. Area of a Trapezoid $$[(l_1+l_2)/2]h$$ In order to find the area of a trapezoid, you must find the average of the two parallel bases and multiply this by the height of the trapezoid. Now let's look at an example: In the figure, WXYZ is a rectangle with $\ov{WA} = \ov{BZ} = 4$. The area of the shaded region is 32. What is the length of $\ov{XY}$? [Note: figure not to scale] A. 6B. 8C. 12D. 16E. 20 First, let us fill in our given information. Our shaded figure is a trapezoid, so let us use the formula for finding the area of a trapezoid. area $=[(l_1+l_2)/2]h$ Now if we call the longest base q, the shortest base will be $q−4−4$, or $q−8$. (Why? Because the shortest leg is equal to the longest leg minus our two given lengths of 4). This means we can now plug in our values for the leg lengths. In addition, we are also given a height and an area, so we can plug all of our values into the formula in order to find the length of our longest side, q. $32=[(q+(q−8))/2]2$ $32=(2q+2q−16)/2$ $64=4q−16$ $80=4q$ $20=q$ The length of $\ov{XY}$ (which we designated $q$) is 20. Our final answer is E, 20. In general, the best way to find the area of different kinds of polygons is to transform the polygon into smaller and more manageable shapes. This will also help you if you forget your formulas come test day. For example, if you forget the formula for the area of a trapezoid, turn your trapezoid into a rectangle and two triangles and find the area for each. Let us look to how to solve the above problem using this method instead. We are told that the area of the trapezoid is 32. We also know that we can find the area of a triangle by using the formula ${1/2}bh$. So let us find the areas for both our triangles. ${1/2}bh$ ${1/2}(4)(2)$ ${1/2}8$ $4$ Each triangle is worth 8, so together, both triangles will be: $4+4$ $8$ Now if we add the area of our triangles to our given area of the trapezoid, we can see that the area of our full rectangle is: $32+8$ $40$ Finally, we know that we find the area of a rectangle by multiplying the length times the width. We have a given width of 2, so the length will be: $40=lw$ $40=2l$ 20=l The length of the rectangle (line $\ov{XY}$) will be 20. Again, our final answer is E, 20. Always remember that there are many different ways to find what you need, so don’t be afraid to use your shortcuts! Whichever solving path you choose depends on how you like to work best. Angle Formulas Whether your polygon is regular or irregular, the sum of its interior degrees will always follow the rules of that particular polygon. Every polygon has a different degree sum, but this sum will be consistent, no matter how irregular the polygon. For example, the interior angles of a triangle will always equal 180 degrees (to see more on this, be sure to check out our guide to SAT triangles), whether the triangle is equilateral (a regular polygon), isosceles, acute, or obtuse. All of these triangles will have a total interior degree measure of 180 degrees. So by that same notion, the interior angles of a quadrilateral- whether kite, square, trapezoid, or other- will always add up to be 360 degrees. Why? Because a quadrilateral is made up of two triangles. For example: One interior angle of a parallelogram is 65 degrees. If the remaining angles have measures of $a$, $b$ and $c$, what is the value of $a+b+c$? All quadrilaterals have an interior degree sum of 360, so: $a+b+c+65=360$ $a+b+c=295$ The sum of $\bi a, \bi b$, and $\bi c$ is 295. Interior Angle Sum You will always be able to find the sum of a polygon’s interior angles in one of two ways- by memorizing the interior angle formula, or by dividing your polygon into a series of triangles. Method 1: Interior Angle Formula $$(n−2)180$$ If you have an $n$ number of sides in your polygon, you can always find the interior degree sum by the formula $(n−2)$ times 180 degrees. If you picture starting from one angle and drawing connecting lines to every other angle to make triangles, you can see why this formula has an $n−2$. The reason being that you cannot make a triangle by using the immediate two connecting sides that make up the angle- each would simply be a straight line. To see this in action, let us look at our second method. Method 2: Dividing Your Polygon Into Triangles The reason the above formula works is because you are essentially dividing your polygon into a series of triangles. Because a triangle is always 180 degrees, you can multiply the number of triangles by 180 to find the interior degree sum of your polygon, whether your polygon is regular or irregular. Individual Interior Angles If your polygon is regular, you will also be able to find the individual degree measure of each interior angle by dividing the degree sum by the number of angles. (Note: $n$ can be used for both the number of sides and the number of angles; the number of sides and angles in a polygon will always be equal.) $${(n−2)180}/n$$ Again, you can choose to either use the formula or the triangle dividing method by dividing your interior sum by the number of angles. Angles, angler fish...same thing, right? Side Formulas As we saw earlier, a regular polygon will have all equal side lengths. And if your polygon is regular, you can find the number of sides by using the reverse of the formula for finding angle measures. A regular polygon with n sides has equal angles of 120 degrees. How many sides does the figure have? 3 4 5 6 7 For this question, it will be quickest for us to use our answers and work backwards in order to find the number of sides in our polygon. (For more on how to use the plugging in answers technique, check out our guide to plugging in answers). Let us start at the middle with answer choice C. We know from our angle formula (or by making triangles out of our polygons) that a five sided figure will have: $(n−2)180$ $(5−2)180$ $(3)180$ $540$ degrees. Or again, you can always find your degree sum by making triangles out of your polygon. This way you will still end up with $(3)180=540$ degrees. Now, we also know that this is a regular polygon, so each interior angle will be this same. This means we can find the individual angles by dividing the total by the number of sides/angles. So let us find the individual degree measures by dividing that sum by the number of angles. $540/5=108$ Answer choice C was too small. And we also know that the more sides a figure has, the larger each individual angle will be. This means we can cross off answer choices A and B (60 degrees and 90 degrees, respectively), as those answers would be even smaller. Now let us try answer choice D. $(n−2)180$ $(6−2)180$ $(4)180$ $720$ Or you could find your internal degree sum by once again making triangles from your polygons. Which would again give you $(4)180=720$ degrees. Now let’s divide the degree sum by the number of sides. $720/6=120$ We have found our answer. The figure has 6 sides. Our final answer is D, 6. Luckily for us, the SAT is predictable. You don't need a psychic to figure out what you're likely to see come test day. Typical Polygon Questions Now that we’ve been through all of our polygon rules and formulas, let’s look at a few different types of polygon questions you’ll see on the SAT. Almost all polygon questions will involve a diagram in some way (especially if the question involves any polygon with four or more sides). The few problems that do not use a diagram will generally be simple word problems involving rectangles. Typically, you will be asked to find one of three things in a polygon question: #1: The measure of an angle (or the sum of two or more angles)#2: The perimeter of a figure#3: The area of a figure Let’s look at a few real SAT math examples of these different types of questions. The Measure of an Angle: Because this hexagon is regular, we can find the degree measure of each of its interior angles. We saw earlier that we can find this degree measure by either using our interior angle formula or by dividing our figure into triangles. A hexagon can be split into 4 triangles, so $180 °*4=720$ degrees. There are 6 interior angles in a hexagon, and in a regular hexagon, these will all be equal. So: $720/6=120$ Now the line BO is at the center of the figure, so it bisects the interior angle CBA. The angle CBA is 120, which means that angle $x$ will be: $120/2=60$ Angle $x$ is 60 degrees. Our final answer is B, 60. The Perimeter of a Figure: We are told that ABCE is a square with the area of 1. We know that we find the area of a square by multiplying the length and the width (or by squaring one side), which means that: $lw=1$ This means that: $l=1$ And, $w=1$ We also know that every side is equal in a square. This means that $\ov{AB}, \ov{BC}, \ov{CE}, and \ov{AE}$ are ALL equal to 1. We are also told that CED is an equilateral triangle, which means that each side length is equal. Since we know that $\ov{CE} = 1$, we know that $\ov{CD}$ and $\ov{DE}$ both equal 1 as well. So the perimeter of the polygon as a whole- which is made of lines $\ov{AB}, \ov{BC}, \ov{CD}, \ov{DE}, and \ov{EA}$- is equal to: $1+1+1+1+1=5$ Our final answer is B, 5. [Note: don't get tricked into picking answer choice C! Even though each line in the figure is worth 1 and there are 6 lines, line $\ov{CE}$ is NOT part of the perimeter. This is an answer choice designed to bait you, so be careful to always answer only what the question asks.) The Area of a Figure: We are told that the length of the rug is 8 feet and that the length is also 2 feet more than the width. This means that the width must be: $8−2=6$ Now we also know that we find the area of a rectangle by multiplying width and length. So: $8*6=48$ The area of the rug is 48 square feet. Our final answer is B, 48. And now time for some practical how-to's, from tying a bow to solving your polygon questions. How to Solve a Polygon Question Now that we’ve seen the typical kinds of questions you’ll be asked on the SAT and gone through the process of finding our answers, we can see that each solving method has a few techniques in common. In order to solve your polygon problems most accurately and efficiently, take note of these strategies: #1: Break up figures into smaller shapes Don’t be afraid to write all over your diagrams. Polygons are complicated figures, so always break them into small pieces when you can. Break them apart into triangles, squares, or rectangles and you’ll be able to solve questions that would be impossible to figure out otherwise. Alternatively, you may need to expand your figures by providing extra lines and creating new shapes in which to break your figure. Just always remember to disregard these false lines when you’re finished with the problem. Because this is an awkward shape, let us create a new line and break the figure into two triangles. Next, let us replace our given information. From our definitions, we know that every triangle will have interior angles that add up to 180 degrees. We also know that the two angles we created will be equal. We can use this information to find the missing, equal, angle measures by subtracting our givens from 180 degrees. $180−30−20−20$ $110$ Now, we can divide that number in half to find the measurement of each of the two equal angles. $110/2$ $55$ Now, we can look at the smaller triangle as its own independent triangle in order to find the measure of angle z. Again, the interior angles will measure out to 180 degrees, so: $180−55−55$ $70$ Angle $z$ is 70 degrees. Our final answer is B, 70. #2: Use your shortcuts If you don’t feel comfortable memorizing formulas or if you are worried about getting them wrong on test day, don’t worry about it! Just understand your shortcuts (for example, remember that all polygons can be broken into triangles) and you’ll do just fine. #3: When possible, use PIA or PIN Because polygons involve a lot of data, it can be very easy to confuse your numbers or lose track of the path you need to go down to solve the problem. For this reason, it can often help you to use either the plugging in answer strategy (PIA) or the plugging in numbers strategy (PIN), even though it can sometimes take longer (for more on this, check out our guides to PIA and PIN). #4: Keep your work organized There is a lot of information to keep track of when working with polygons (especially once you break the figure into smaller shapes). It can be all too easy to lose your place or to mix-up your numbers, so be extra vigilant about your organization and don’t let yourself lose a well-earned point due to careless error. Ready? Test Your Knowledge Now it's time to test your knowledge with real SAT math problems. 1. 2. 3. Answers: D, B, 6.5 Answer Explanations 1. Again, when dealing with polygons, it's useful to break them into smaller pieces. For this trapezoid, let us break the figure into a rectangle and a triangle by dropping down a height at a 90 degree angle. This will give us a rectangle, which means that we will be able to fill in the missing lengths. Now, we can also find the final missing length for the leg of the triangle. Since this is a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean theorem. $a^2+b^2=c^2$ $x^2+15^2=17^2$ $x^2+225=289$ $x^2=64$ $x=8$ Finally, let us add up all the lines that make up the perimeter of the trapezoid. $17+20+15+20+8$ $80$ Our final answer is D, 80. 2. We are told that the larger polygon has equal sides and equal angles. We can also see that the shaded figure has 4 sides and angles, which means it is a quadrilateral. We know that a quadrilateral has 360 degrees, so let us subtract our givens from 360. $x+y=80$ $360−80=280$ Again, we know that the polygon has all equal angles, so we can find the individual degree measures by dividing this found number in half. $280/2=140$ Each interior angle of the polygon will have 140 degrees. Now, we can find the number of sides by either reversing our polygon side formula or by plugging in answers. Let's look at both methods. Method 1: Formula $${(n−2)180}/n$$ We know that this formula gives us the measure of each interior angle, so let us use the knowledge of our individual interior angle (our found 140 degrees) and plug it in to find n, the number of sides. $140={(n−2)180}/n$ $140n=(n−2)180$ $140n=180n−360$ $−40n=−360$ $n=9$ Our polygon has 9 sides. Our answer is B, 9. Method 2: Plugging in answers We can also use our method of plugging in answers to find the number of sides in our polygon. As always, let us select answer option C. Answer choice C gives us 8 sides. We know that a polygon with eight sides will be broken into 6 triangles. So it will have: $180*6$ $1080$ degrees total Now, if we divide this total by the number of sides, we get: $1080/8$ $135$ Each interior angle will be 135 degrees. This answer is close, but not quite what we want. We also know that the more sides a regular polygon has, the larger each interior angle measure will be (an equilateral triangle's angles are each 60 degrees, a rectangle's angles are each 90 degrees, and so on), so we need to pick a polygon with more than 8 sides. Let us then try answer choice B, 9 sides. We know that a 9-sided polygon will be made from 7 triangles. This means that the total interior degree measure will be: $180*7$ $1260$ And we know that each angle measure will be equal, so: $1260/9$ $140$ We have found our correct answer- a 9-sided polygon will have individual angle measures of 140 degrees. Our final answer is B, nine. 3. Let us begin by breaking up our figure into smaller, more manageable polygons. We know that the larger rectangle will have an area of: $2*1$ $2$ The smaller rectangle will have an area of: $1*x$ $x$ (Note: we are using $x$ in place of one of the smaller sides of the small rectangles, since we do not yet know its length) We are told that the total area is $9/4$, so: $2+x=9/4$ $x=9/4−2$ $x=9/4−8/4$ $x=1/4$ Now that we know the length of x, we can find the perimeter of the whole figure. Let us add all of the lengths of our exposed sides to find our perimeter. $1+2+1+0.25+1+0.25+1$ $6.5$ Our perimeter is $6.5.$ Our final answer is 6.5. I think you deserve a present for pushing through on polygons, don't you? The Take Aways Though polygon questions may seem complicated, all polygons follow just a handful of rules. You may come across irregular polygons and ones with many sides, but the basic strategies and formulas will apply regardless. So long as you follow your solve steps, keep your work well organized, and remember your key definitions, you will be able to take on and solve polygon questions that once seemed utterly obscure. What’s Next? Phew! You knocked out polygons and now it's time to make sure the rest of your math know-how is in top shape. First, make sure you have working knowledge of all the math topics on the SAT so that you can get a sense of your strengths and weaknesses. Next, find more topic-specific SAT math guides like this one so that you can turn those weak areas into strengths. Need to brush up on your probability questions? Fractions and ratios? Lines and angles? No matter what topic you need, we've got you covered. Running out of time on the SAT math? Look to our guide on how to best boost your time (and your score!). Worried about test day? Take a look at how you should prepare for the actual day in question. Want to get a perfect score? 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