Monday, September 30, 2019

My Native Town

My native town is Mandalay it’s also well-known as a culture city of Myanmar. Mandalay is Upper Myanmar's main commercial, educational, health centre and considered the centre of Burmese culture. Mandalay is Located in the central dry zone of Myanmar and on the east bank of the Irrawaddy River. Its also surrounded by Sagaing Hill, Shan Yoma Hill, Kyut Sae Hill and Mandalay Hill. My native town is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar. King Mindon founded Mandalay and the royal palace, Mya Nan San Kyaw as a new capital at the foot of Mandalay Hill in 1857. When it was founded in 1857, the royal city was officially named Yadanabon which means â€Å"The City of Gems†. King Mindon also founded the Kuthodaw Pagoda, the Thudhamma Zayats and the library for the Buddhist scriptures. I'm always proud the glory of Mya Nan San Kyaw Palace and Mandalay Kyone. That's a trademark of my native town. Mandalay is famous with the places such as Maha Muni Pagoda, Kyauktawgyi Pagoda, Kuthodaw Pagoda, Shwenandaw Monastery and Atumashi Monastery. Mandalay is Myanmar's cultural and religious centre of Buddhism, having numerous monasteries and more than 700 pagodas. That show my native town is very devout in Buddhist religious. Moreover, Mandalay is well-known in the world by The World's Biggest Book, located in Kuthodaw Pagoda and U Paing Bridge. Most of the famous authors and artists in Myanmar were emerged from Mandalay and they served our traditional culture not to disappear and created new cultural tradition to our generations. Therefore, no matter how much the globalization wave is influenced in Mandalay, Mandalay always has a sense of our Myanmar people's culture and overwhelmed the religious beliefs.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

New Heritage Doll Company Write-up Essay

Introduction New Heritage Doll Company is a firm that has ventured into doll production which has sought to extend its brand in order to broaden its market framework and more importantly capitalize on high levels of customer loyalty. The vice president of the Company, Emily Harris, is to forward her project proposal to the Budgeting Committee for evaluation. The Vice-president’s objective for proposing the project was based on potential to strengthen the Company’s division of production and drive future growth. Emily Harris has to produce a compelling project to avoid the committee from declining the proposal. Basis of Assessment There are two projects between which the company can choose from or drop the proposals in their entirety. The methods of project evaluation would be based on discounting cash flows analysis and thereafter determining the Net Present Value (NPV) of each of the proposed project with Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Profitability Index and Payback Period. If the project has a positive NPV, it would suggests the project is generating more cash than is required to service the debt and provide the appropriate returns; thus, the higher NPV, the better it is for the company. The project proposal with the positive and highest NPV, IRR and profitability index along with the shortest payback period would be acceptable for investment. New Heritage Doll Company managed to produce a capital budgeting structure in order to evaluate the revenue generated in the Doll industry. It is clearly evident that a segment of the Doll industry generates income progressively with an increasing rate of 4.6%. Cash flows forecast is used to capture the incremental effect of a proposed project in order to acknowledge the breakeven point and profit or loss time frame. If the company continues with its investment in the toy and game segment, it is going to experience the economies of scale and have high operating profits. However, for a company  to embrace another project proposal, it has to evaluate its financial capacity to fund the project. Thus, any project which does not generate significant revenue, the company must cultivate the capital rationing. Similarly, the company must consider some factors in the assessment of project’s risk, such as whether the project product’s required new traders or consumers who are willing to accept the goods or services rendered by the company; where the project proposal requires high level of the fixed costs, the project to be appraised is at very high risk considering such costs do not generate high returns; sensitivity of the selling price of the finished goods, and high level of breakeven production volumes. The prudent way to evaluate the company’s feasibility whether or not to inves t on a new venture is by analyzing the returns or the operating profits. If the firm’s expects to experience some losses, it should reject the proposal. However, if the firm is operating at a breakeven point, the company may have the option to forecast whether it is an on-going concern. Problem Identification The Heritage Doll Company is appraising two proposed projects, Match My Doll Clothing and Design Your Own Doll. Emily Harris, vice president of the company’s production division must have compelling reasons to influence the budgeting department to accept the project for implementation. The theoretical reasons behind Match My Doll Clothing to be implemented by the company budgeting committee is that the products produced fully match all seasonal clothing for the young girls and their preferred doll; the popularity of the company’s product; and it is the best time for expansion due to its popularity. The reasons for choosing Design Your Own Doll is that the company’s products would have high correlation with the consumers; the company’s doll can be customized based on the tastes and preferences of the consumers; permanent customer loyalty; dolls demand a strong selling probability; and the company’s potential to strengthen its future growth. However, the company is also limited to take this project due to several constrains including: low production runs and volumes, limited gradation of customization increased manufacturing complication; increase in production and development costs for the technology modification and infrastructure. One of the key distinctions between the two projects is that Design Your Own Doll and Match My Doll Clothing are two mutually exclusive projects. Their  cash flows are related and have the same function and they compete with each other meaning that the acceptance of one project eliminates consideration of the other project. DCF and Sensitivity Analysis The Company should maximize on cash management by capital rationing on the project accepted. NPV of the project should be implemented as it reflects the time value of money invested in the accepted project. Similarly this can be further elaborated by computation of IRR of both project proposal. The analysis was performed by comparing the two projects using the same fixed terminal growth rate of 3% because both projects include a terminal growth rate element. For both projects, it would also be beneficial to know how the terminal growth rate value is generated. Because the â€Å"medium†- risk projects in the production division received a discount rate of 8.4% in 2010, this rate was used for the Match My Doll Clothing line’s DCF analysis. Design Your Own Doll project is long-term project and it is considered to have a higher risk; thus, the rate of 9.00% was used in the analysis. The results of the analysis are presented below. Design Your Own Doll Match My Doll Clothing NPV = $7,310.21 The NPV is positive – the project is feasible. NPV = $7,139.18 The NPV is positive – the project is feasible. IRR=18.24% IRR=23.6% Profitability Index = 1.26 Profitability Index = 2.03 Payback Period = 9.3 years Payback Period = 9.2 year Recommendations From the Working Capital requirements assumptions, Design Your Own Doll requires a higher amount of working capital than Match My Doll Clothing; however, the results of the analysis of the Operating Profit show that Design Your Own Doll line would generate a higher operating profit than that  of the Match My Doll Clothing line. Also, Design Your Own Doll generates higher cash flows compared to the Match My Doll Clothing and this is another argument for choosing Design Your Own Doll for its investment. From the NPV method standpoint, the NPV rule chooses a project in terms of net dollars or net financial impact on the company; thus, it can be easier to use when allocating capital. Also, NPV method requires an assumed discount rate and also assumes that this percentage rate will be stable over the life of the project. In the real world, this assumption does not always work because the interest rates are fluctuating. From the analysis, both of the projects are feasible but Design Your Own Doll has the higher NPV than the Match My Doll Clothing line. IRR method doesn’t assume a discount rate and the worthiness of the investment is purely a function of the internal inflows and outflows of that particular investment. However, IRR does not assess the financial impact on a firm; it only requires meeting a minimum return rate. The internal rate of return is the most critical method to determine the decision option for accepting the project proposal. Also, the highest operating rate of returns with the shortest payback period of the cost of capital is opted to be accepted. From the analysis, Match My Doll Clothing line has the higher IRR than the Design Your Own Doll line. In conclusion, even though both projects are feasible and Design Your Own Doll has the higher NPV, Match My Doll Clothing line project has a higher IRR, profitability index and a shorter payback period. Thus, the budgeting committee should accept Match My Doll Clothing line instead of Design Your Own Doll since Match My Doll Clothing line has the higher IRR, profitability and the shortest payback period. The NPV of both proposals are not significantly different.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

None Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

None - Assignment Example Based on the above histogram, the most important metrics to study would be the mean and also looking at the parametric tests since from the histogram, the variables shows that they follow a normal distribution Clearly from the charts presented above it is clear that in terms of gender more male respondents (students) took part in the survey as compared to the female respondents. 57% (N=17)of those who took part were the male respondents while the female respondents were 43% (N=13). In terms of the states, Alabama State had the highest number of the respondents while California had the least number of students interviewed in this survey. 30% (N=9) of those who took part in the survey were from Alabama, 27% (N=8) were from Arizona, 20% (N=6) were from California while 23% (N=7) were from the State of Illinois. Based on the first histogram (transformed z-score on number of hours), it is clear that the variable is free from the outliers however, the second histogram (transformed z-score on the score) we can clearly see by visualization that there are some elements of outlier in the

Friday, September 27, 2019

HRM Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

HRM - Essay Example Only a manger with outstanding skill can identify the required changes right way. If a company fails to understand the required changes, it would confront with crises as it misunderstands the symptoms as real issues to be addressed. The following part of the paper will discuss how a company can identify the need for change from its internal and external environments. 1. Unusual decline in turnover: this is the basic sign that would prompt every firm to identify the range of business profitability. Organizations usually review previous years’ audited balance sheet with intent to investigate the prevailing business trend as well as the organizational sustainability. In the same way if the operational cost is found exceeding the profit derived from the business, it indicates the need for some strategic changes in the business operation. However, the specific area of change can be identified only through further scrutiny. Presumably, most of the problems, no matter associated with fiscal aspects or market backlashes, are attributed to HR failure. 2. Strategic failures: If some of the recently implemented marketing strategies are not well responded, the company should review them to identify the causes of failure. Failure may not be necessarily due to their inaptness but can happen because of numerous direct or indirect factors related to business. As far as the internal environment is concerned, a well designed strategy can be defeated just by the mibehaviour of one or more individuals. In other words, how well a strategy is implemented is more important than the quality of its design. 3. Unethical practices: Organizational misconduct is an important symptom that indicates the inevitability of change, perhaps specifically in the area of HRM and organizational structure. Most of the fraudulent activities occur due to the inefficient internal communication and auditing. Modern organizations heed genuine concern to enhance internal communication by integrating various departments with the help of web-based technologies. By doing so they can easily manage the problems associated with information sharing and problem solving. Diagnosing the cause is not the end but the initial step of any treatment process. Once the need for change is identified a firm has to proceed with designing and implementing relevant changes that would enhance the overall cohesion of the organisation. There are numerous issues an organisation has to take into consideration while initiating changes. As Dunphy (249) warns, most important one among them is to address employees’ resistance to change which would raise several ethical concerns. An organisational culture that was formed over years cannot be altered overnight. A change can take place successfully only if people in an organisation realise that the organisation must change its current culture and practices in order to ensure the firm’s sustainability and progress. However, the process requires mem bers’ deep understanding of the need for change, their commitment to accomplish it, and the effective way of deploying it. The understanding refers to the knowledge about the current culture and its impacts on the firm, the anticipated benefit of the new system, and the real goal it would achieve. This knowledge can be acquired by reviewing the extent to which the current culture has helped the firm to meet its mission, vision, and values with regard to business aims and social concerns. 2 Organisations

Thursday, September 26, 2019

To explore the association between congestive heart failure (CHF) and Essay

To explore the association between congestive heart failure (CHF) and household income at the federal poverty level in individuals between the ages 20 and Up - Essay Example Once an individual is poor, equitable access to preventive and remedial health for congestive heart failure (CHF) becomes a challenge (He et al, 2001). The emergence of limited small scale programs which target the address of social and health needs like CHF of the poor individuals in the society is encouraging. However the commitment of the national, state, provincial and local levels supposed to implement the policies has been inadequate (Walsh & Warren, 1980). These organs have failed to dedicate resources and funds required to expand such individual level interventions into comprehensive programs which can integrate preventions and services as well as deliver sustainable programs especially to patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) of the federal poverty level in individuals from the age of 20 and above (Braveman, 2010). People below 20 years living with this condition often receive free medical interventions from bodies like UNICEF and WHO because they are classified as ch ildren. Hence, those living with the condition and are 20 years and above have to struggle to meet their medical bills. It becomes a challenge to those from poor households because they cannot afford the costs (Lang et al, 1997). The long term solutions supposed to address the connection between poverty and CHF lie in eradicating poverty and reversing the tendency of our health care systems which discriminate against those from federal poverty levels. The mortality rates of the poor with CHF are estimated to be 3-5 times greater as compared to those with good income earnings. CHF is a major cause of mortality in poor adults from the age of 45 to 64 years (Singh & Singh, 2008). The rate is three times higher in poor individuals aged 20 to 44 years when compared to an age-matched population from good income earning population. Increased CHF mortality rates among the poor can be attributed to a complex chain between unique and traditional rates. Some

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Greenomics Marketing Strategy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Greenomics Marketing Strategy - Research Paper Example According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that Greenomics has a strategic plan of becoming a successful business that is strongly expressed in its mission statement, financial and non-financial goals and its competitive advantage. The mission statement is to achieve luxurious interior designing the greenway, and the financial objectives are to break even in the first three months and to increase sales by twenty percent after every three months. The marketing programs will support this strategic plan and other key features like company uniqueness, adjusting to market conditions, trends and changes in the following ways: - Making it possible to achieve break-even position in less than three months through effective pricing and financing strategies; - Providing chances to develop eco-chic offices and stores that are fashionable, high performing, luxurious, reliable, not over-priced and eco-friendly;Â   - Strict management of the brand; Greenomics through strict adh erence to price and quality issues; - Creating awareness concerning how the environment is being destroyed and how it is encouraging global warming; - Carrying out effective consumer analysis programs with an emphasis on customers who have an interest in saving money on the power bill in the long run.

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

The Realism Era - Faulkner, London, Sinclair and Twain Essay

The Realism Era - Faulkner, London, Sinclair and Twain - Essay Example Faulkner is one of the most important American writers of the last century and his work was well received and he became popular even in his own lifetime. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature and the short stories written by Faulkner contributed a lot towards him getting this prize. As a part of the realist movement, his stories focus on the realities of life as he saw and experienced them since many of stories are placed in the Yoknapatawpha County located in the state of Mississippi (Faulkner, 1949). At the same time, the placement of individual within the stories is also important since they are examinations of life in Southern America through the eyes of Faulkner. As described by Inge (1995, Pg. 283), the critics have noted that many of the tales written by Faulkner are â€Å"Studies of the manners, superstitions, loyalties and shortcomings of the South (Inge, 1995, Pg. 283)†. The collection of stories in Knight’s Gambit and A Rose for Emily in particular can be used as good examples of such writing. Thus instead of focusing on romances which are spun in strange and foreign lands, Faulkner and others in the realist movement focused on the here and now particularly with regard to the location and the situation of the characters of the stories. The here and now is also an important factor for storytelling when it comes to Samuel Clemens who is better known by his pen name i.e. Mark Twain. He wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1884 and it is considered to be one of the great American novels since it was the first major work by an established author which uses the common speech patterns that had developed in Southern America at the time. The story and the narrative are told in the first person by Huckleberry Finn as he engages in many adventures along the Mississippi river. However, as a piece of

Monday, September 23, 2019

Cross Culture Management Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Cross Culture Management - Case Study Example There is much emphasis on the flexible approaches especially to changing circumstances and the integration of the overall importance of the people in the attainment of any set objective. As such, the culture focusses on flexible systems of control and information sharing (Chen 2004, p. 200). The Indonesian working culture is also a being culture because of the values attached to career development and the styles of management. For instance, there is much concern for the vision or idea that a firm hopes to attain and that the attainment is not a result of planning, but because of shared vision among the concerned parties. The culture believes the best managers are those that share ideologies with the people and one that tunes the people to adapt to the changing working environment. The culture is a public one because of the focus it gives to group-oriented and authoritative forms of planning that center on relationships between the people in its context. The work culture in the Indonesian context is collectivism because of the focus it gives to the community approaches to work (Chen 2004, p. 178). There is much emphasis on the achievement of the goals and management of the collective attitudes to the all the people in the company framework. Therefore, collectivism is an approach that believes in the power of collective responsibilities in management. The culture is also a low-context culture because the planning is one that bases on more explicit and less detailed on instructions. The descriptions of the jobs are precise and simple to understand within the company context. The managers get their work done through establishing strong relationships with their juniors and consider that they cannot achieve much except by combined effort from the workers. The same culture is a future culture because a majority of the plans that the managers make focus on long-term ambitions

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Iliad Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The Iliad - Assignment Example On a different level, patriarchy represents different configurations of male interaction, within a society that is male-centered and based on power relationships. It may relate to father-son but it may also be an ‘older-younger man’ connection. Homer clearly sees the rule of the father as a desirable situation, but this dominance is not always benign, as evidenced even among the Gods in the relationship between Zeus and Hephaestus (I. 571 pp). Within the Iliad, all men are subject to the laws patriarchy, with the kings enjoying father-son relationships with Gods. Thus ‘Zeus is hard: who before this time promised me and consented†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ that Agamemnon might sack Ilion. Now he is punished ‘in dishonor having lost so many people’ (IX. 19pp). Like a father, Zeus offers or withholds approval. Here we have the example of the stern, exacting father but when Priam morns Hector, whose body is dragged around the grave of Patroklos every day by Achilles, Zeus mediates between Hera and Apollo to bring help to Priam (XXIV, 64pp). So, kings may be sons of the Gods but there are also times when they may need to bow to humans in supplication, as Priam does, when he clutches the knees of Achilles in great distress, like a son might do (XXIV, 476 pp). And this is not the only time, when Achilles acts like a father.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Legislatures learnsmart 5 Essay Example for Free

Legislatures learnsmart 5 Essay 1. True or false: Both chambers of Congress allow a member to speak for an unlimited time on the floor. A: false 2. Which of the following are members of the House leadership? A: Majority leader, majority whip and minority leader 3. Redistricting can diminish the advantages of being an incumbent because the candidate loses name recognition 4. Order the following general steps that a bill must pass through in order to become law 1. A member of the House of Representatives or the Senate formally proposes the bill 2. Subgroups within the House and Senate, composed of legislators who have expertise in the bill’s subject mater, review the bill 3. A majority of members in the House and Senate must approve it 4. The Conference Committee reconciles the bill when different versions have passed in the House and the Senate 5. President signs the bill 5. Members of Congress may experience conflict between their policy-making function and their representation function because A: They feel pressured to vote for a policy that clashes with their constituent’s interests. 6. To balance the desire for representation at different levels, the framers made Congress a bicameral institution. 7. Congress has a number of functions other than lawmaking. These include A: Acting on presidential actions, setting the national agenda, and representing its constituents. 8. Because taxation was such an important power to the framers, they required that all these measures must start A: in the House. 9. Reapportionment is the reallocation of seats in the House of Representatives to each state based on changes in the state’s population since the last census. 10. Which of the following is the most powerful leadership position in the Senate A: Majority leader 11. Which of the following are reasons why specific members of Congress are chosen for congressional leadership positions? A: Ability to guide compromise, to persuade and to negotiate. 12. When congressional district boundaries are redrawn within a state, it is known as redistricting 13. Two of the most important influences on congressional elections are incumbency and redistricting. 14. Which of the following oversight tools ensure that Congress has some say in how the executive branch administers the laws that Congress creates? A: congressional hearings, budgetary appropriations and confirmation hearings. 15. The single most important factor in determining the success of a congressional campaign is incumbency. 16. Which congressional function involves auditing agency implementation of policy? A: Oversight 17. The power of taxation, among other powers, was given to Congress: A: to limit the power of the president; and because it is more representative to the people. 18. Gerrymandering A: is usually legal. 19 Which of the following influence agenda setting in Congress? A: public discourse, House and Senate leaders’ goals 20 Which of the following of Congress, which all other functions of Congress are related to? A: Policy making. 21. Constituents influence the legislative process by ensuring that their representatives in Congress work hard to represent their perspectives and policy interests 22. True or False: A president’s popularity rating cannot affect a legislator’s decision to vote for a particular bill A: True 23. Committees are important because A: They help develop passable legislation; they facilitate the consideration of high volume of bills; and they each specialize in a certain type of legislation. 24. Congressional oversight includes the federal bureaucracy because it is a part of the executive branch. 25. Interest groups engage in which of the following activities in order to influence legislators’ decision? A: grassroots activism, financial contributions, and lobbying. 26. Each senator represents his or her state, while House members represent their congressional district. 27. Partisan voting occurs more often when members are voting on domestic policy issues that tend to crystallize ideological differences between the parties. 28. House and Senate members often rely on which of the following inform their decision making on legislation because they frequently have policy expertise that can guide a legislator on an upcoming vote? A: Staff member 29. The president’s opinion concerning a specific bill can influence members of Congress, especially A: when they belong to the same party. 30. Some examples of Congress’s use of the ‘elastic clause’ include A: determining an oil company’s authority to drill on federal lands; expanding law enforcement authority in terrorism case; and regulating stem cell research. 31. Which of the following is a legislative power the president does not possess? A: Line-item veto. 32. Legislators use pork barrel politics and earmarks to bring money and jobs back to their home districts to show their constituents that they are working toward their best interests in Congress. 33. For mundane matters about which their constituents are less likely to be aware or hold a strong position, legislators typically rely on the trustee model of representation. 34. Citizens wanting policies that benefit the elderly, while others advocate for legislation beneficial for children, is an example of the influence that Congress has A: in managing societal conflict 35. Which of the following is not a way new legislation can be introduce in the Senate? A: A senator’s staff drafts a piece of proposed legislation and the senator place it in the hopper on the Senate floor. 36. Congress manages societal conflict by representing a wide range of views and interests. 37. The U.S Congress has a number of Constitutional powers beyond lawmaking. For example, it A: govern the District of Columbia; regulates the armed forces; regulates interstate commerce; and declares war. 38. When a committee or subcommittee holds a hearing, they are trying to gather information and views from experts about a proposed bill. 39. Interest groups can be a valuable resource to legislators because A: They can provide financial and electoral support. 40. Oversight is an important function of Congress because it ensures that laws are being administered in keeping with legislators’ original intent. 41. Which of the following are duties of the Speaker of the House? A: Making majority party committee assignments; chairing floor debates 42. Match the characteristics on the right with the chamber, which they describe: House: Taxation policies start in this chamber; this chamber faces more frequent elections Senate: Treaties are considered in this chamber; this chamber is more deliberative. 42. In the House of Representatives, a member of a legislator’s staff drafts t he proposed legislation and the House member puts the bill into the hopper. 43. House leadership is chosen at the A: beginning of each session of Congress. 44, Congress continuously engages in agenda setting because it relieves the pressure parties face in getting their members to vote with their particular party. 45. Congress engages in agenda setting when it determines which public policy issues the federal legislature should consider. 46. The framers had tax bills start in the House because A: it had a smaller constituency than the Senate; it had a shorter electoral term. 47. The practice in which members of Congress agree to vote for a bill in exchange for their colleague’s vote on another bill is called logrolling. 48. If a vote in the Senate is tied, the vice president breaks the tie. 49. Historically, which position has been honorary in nature? A: president pro tempore 50. Which of the following contribute to incumbents having an advantage during congressional elections? A: stronger name recognition; ease in attracting contributions; and easier access to media coverage. 51. An agency review provides an opportunity for executive agencies that would administer a proposed law to comment on the measure. 52. The Senate is more deliberative because A: its electoral terms are longer; it has fewer members. 53. A filibuster can arise when a member of the Senate wishes to halt or delay the passage of a bill. 54. After a committee agrees to the wording of a bill, the committee issues a report to the full chamber that explains the bill and its intent. 55. Creating â€Å"majority-minority† districts is a type of Gerrymandering. 56. Which committee sets the structure for the debate that ensues in the full House? A: Rules Committee. 57. An elderly person deciding to vote to reelect a House representative after the representative has tracked down the constituent’s Social Security check is an example of how casework can benefit an incumbent. 58. Unanimous consent agreements require that all senators agree to the terms of debate on a given piece of legislation. 59. A joint committee is composed of members of both chambers of Congress. 60. Redistricting can lessen the impact of incumbency, especially in years ending in the number 2. 61. Congress gets its powers from sources other than the Constitution, including A: American citizens, the media, and Supreme Court decisions. 62. The House Majority leader acts as an assistant to the Speaker of the House in performing legislative duties. 63. In more populated areas, congressional districts in the House of Representatives are often A: homogeneous, cohesive units. 64. AN elected or appointed official acts as an ombudsperson when advocating for citizens by listening to and investigating complaints against a government agency. 65. Which of the following is true about the Senate minority leader? A: Leader of the minority party in the Senate; negotiates with the majority leader. 66. A select committee is created to consider specific policy issues or address a specific concern in legislature. 67. Redistricting sometimes makes incumbency less important. 68. If 51 or more Democrats are elected to the Senate, each committee and subcommittee will have a minority of Republicans as members. 69. When there is a designation within a spending bill that provides for a specific expenditure it is called A: an earmark. 70. Congressional leadership refers bills to the lead committee. 71. Which of the following is not true about a markup? A: The committee actually alters a bill 72. The framers structured Congress in way that A: made it an effective check on the president; made it powerful enough to govern, and kept it from becoming too powerful. 73. After 1995, joint referrals were abolished from the House 74. The House leadership position of whip acts as a liaison between A: leadership and part members in the House. 75. Which of the following terms describes the segment of voters who pay careful attention to political issues? A: attentive public 76. Subcommittees are a subset of a A: Standing committee. 77. A standing committee is a permanent committee in Congress. 78. Members of the House of Representatives are reluctant to defy the will of their congressional districts because A: Their short two-year terms increase the probability that they will be voted out of office for going against the electorate. 79. When an incumbent performs casework for a constituent, it helps to create a good-word-of-mouth reputation and attracts support for that candidate during reelection. 80. The ability to use franking to communicate with voters is a benefit inaccessible to non-incumbents. 81. The attentive public is the segment of voters who pay careful attention to political issues. 82. The term pork barrel describes legislators’ appropriations of funds via legislation for special projects located within their congressional districts. 83. To end a filibuster, a supermajority of sixty senators must agree to invoke cloture and end debate 84. Which of the following is required to extract a bill from committee in order to have it considered by the entire House? A: discharge petition 85. A consequence of having a congressional â€Å"safe seat† is that a house member A: can generally be partisan without unfavorable political outcome. 86. Committee chairs are often chosen using the seniority system, by which the member with the longest continuous tenure on a standing committee receives preference when the committee chooses its chair 87. Which model of representation insists that legislators vote in line with their constituents’ views even when this contradicts their personal views? A: Instructed delegate model. 88. What occurs after a conference committee reconciles a bill between the House and Senate? A: The bill goes back to both chambers for a vote 89. In this model of representation, a legislator may act in opposition to the clear wishes of his or her constituents, such as in cases where an action is â€Å"for their own good† or the good of society. A: Trustee model 90. The most powerful position in the Senate: the majority leader manages the legislative process and schedules debate on legislation 91. Senators sometimes find it hard to represent constituents because they are elected by an entire state’s population, which may contain citizens who have conflicting views, ideologies, and policy priorities.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Occupational Health and Safety Essay

Occupational Health and Safety Essay Health and safety is mainly about providing a safe and healthy workplace to the employees. The International Labour Organisation stated a definition of Health and Safety in 1950 Occupational health should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention amongst workers of departures from health caused by their working conditions; the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; the placing and maintenance of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological capabilities; and, to summarize, the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job. Health and safety is done to ensure that risks to employees safety and health are precisely being controlled. Health and safety has become an important issue nowadays (Health and Safety Executive, 2008). Bill Callaghan in 2000 stated that good health and safety is good business. Sadly, not every organisation understands that. This is an unbearable expense for them and we had seen that the numbers of accidents have increased greatly although the implementation of different laws. Furthermore, as a secondary option as stated by the HSE in 2008, health and safety at the workplace should also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, suppliers, nearby communities, and other members of the public who are connected with the workplace environment. In order to achieve this we have to engross interactions among many focus areas, including occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, public health, safety engineering, chemistry and health physics. Weskem LLC had written in 2007 that the main issue of Occupational Safety and Health is that accidents are costing a lot to the organisations and therefore laying more importance on the implementation of a good health and safety program. When accidents happen, the employer looses on two grounds; increased medical costs and employee absences (which are being paid as sick leaves). A safe work environment is not a ridiculous expectation from low class employees. From the labourer digging a hole to the office manager to the site manager-all foresee arriving home each evening without having been injured on the job. Furthermore he added that, accidents do happen, but those can be avoided in many cases. Safety in some organisation (although rare) is given the first place and even minor injuries are unacceptable. A fatality can put pause to a project and initiate a long and complicated investigation that could hold-up a project for months. It will also create a negative publicity. Occupational health and safety also impacts upon the employment bond and outsourcing, and there is a need to guarantee that there is compliance with the regulations in force. There are numerous issues affecting the health and safety of workers, e.g. exposure to physical, biological, chemical, ergonomic hazards. In his book published in 2002, Charles D.Reesee made clear that in the fields of health and safety, there are three Es that prevail. Those are respectively: Engineering- entails awareness of safety issues when designing equipment Education- train employees in safety procedures and how to safely do their job. Enforcement- rules and policies should be firmly imposed. He further stated that there are six good reasons to prevent accidents, injuries and deaths: Destruction of human life is ethically unfair. If employers do not take initial safety measures, this entitles them to be decently accountable for those accidents. Accidents limit efficiency and productivity. Occupational accidents produce far reaching social harm. Safety techniques can easily reduce occupational accidents. There has been a lot of expansion in the legal domains in order to provide a safe and healthy workforce. In totting up, he added that without exception all industries face health and safety issues which could have adverse effects upon their workforce and workplace. The employers need to recognise that there are hazards prevailing at their workplace and therefore take all the precautions that are necessary. Employers risk a lot when they perceive that safety is no longer a priority or when they divert all the resources made available for the health and safety department elsewhere. Hazard identification, prevention and mitigation are the most important elements in reducing occupational accidents and illness. In order to make all these accessible, Charles D.Reesee proposed that there is a need to put in place an approach which combines training of the workers and their involvement, ergonomic job design, medical surveillance, competent supervisor and a corporate organisation that promotes safety. The organisation should put safety before production (i.e. at the bottom line). We had seen that nowadays, the noose is tightening, and frequent bad safety practice is now being regarded in the same way as drink-driving and high penalties are being awarded. The evolution of health and safety Concern for the protection of workers health and safety is not new; it started from the early cavemen till now to the modern workers. History has shown that the Egyptians knew the danger from gold and silver fumes. They even had their own first manual of 1st aid. Ramses in 1500 B.C. hired a physician for quarry workers. Hippocrates the father of medicine realised in 400 B.C. that stone crushers were having breathing problems. The Romans even had a goddess of safety and health named, Salus and whose picture is usually found on their coins. As we go through the middle ages, we had witnessed that the working force around the world became more and more conscious about the importance of health and safety, an e.g. in the 1700s the English chimney sweeps and their ability to cause testicular cancer was discovered. During that period also the first unions made their apparitions by trying to improve the conditions of the workers. In the 1400s some physicians made their colleagues aware that t here is a great need to avert the diseases of employment in mines (Charles D.Reesee, 2001). The Hammurabi Codex (a code of law) was carved on a black stone monument on public display in ancient Babylon in Mesopotamia and that was 1780 BC. The laws were namely: If a builder built a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built falls in and kills its owner, then that builder shall be put to death [Law 229] If it kills the son of the owner, the son of that builder shall be put to death [Law 230] If it kills a slave of the owner, then he shall pay for a slave to the owner of the house [Law 231] If it ruins goods, he shall make compensation for all that has been ruined, and inasmuch as he did not construct properly this house which he built and it fell, he shall re-erect the house from his own means [Law 232] (Xmo Strata, 2011). During the first part of the 1900s, compensation law was established and prior to this most employers passed the blame of accidents to their workers using the common laws which stated that: The employer was not responsible when ones injury was caused by negligence of a fellow worker. The employer was not responsible if the worker was injured due to his own negligence. The employer was not responsible if when taking the job the employee was aware of the risk that it compromised (Xmo Strata, 2011). On the other hand, Abermed limited stated on the 19th of October 2010 that in the 1900s some companies became more conscious about the importance of health and safety and did not use the common laws as a means of putting the faults on the workers. Another issue that they pointed out were that society is now responding to the rising levels of proof as to the associations between disease and certain work activities, by making employers responsible for the individual and social expenses incurred by poor workplace safety and health policies. According to them it occurred by the expansion of workers compensation and occupational health and safety regulatory programs. Those efforts were done in order to decrease occupational accidents and diseases in organisation. And it was completed in 1970 by President Richard Nixon who signed the Occupational Safety and Health Act which established a nationwide enforcement-oriented health and safety program. This legislation called for the development of increasingly severe standards to be met by all employers. Those Standards forced changes in engineering design and monitoring instrumentation were developed to assess industrial hazards. For example, air quality 15 years ago was measured by loss of visibility caused by airborne-suspended particulate materials. Now air quality is being evaluated by complicated sampling devices that measure qualitatively and quantitatively the levels of respirable-sized particles entering a workmans lungs over an eight-hour work shift. Acceptable levels of pollutants have gone from thousands of micrograms of materials per cubic centimeter of air to hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter per day (Abermed limited, 2010). From a moral and ethical standpoint, employers have the duty to grant a safe and protected atmosphere for their employees. In many contracts we have seen that nowadays they are inserting a clause that states that the employee will do their best for the company and that the company itself will do all the best possible for its workers. Then from an organisation perspective, we can see that employees are an enormous expense to the organisation. Its not just about paying salaries but about recruitment and training. All this costs a lot of money. The more the industry is skilled the greater will be the cost to the company. The important aspect is that the employers at all cost tries to retain its best and brightest employee and that implies creating a safe and healthy workplace for them (Abermed limited, 2010). This is done not only to protect the investment done into the employee, but also to ensure that the employee continues to contribute to the profits by being a productive member of the organisation. In this context, occupational health and safety can be considered as a retention tool. Another issue is that it is an effective public relations tool. Workplace accidents and incidents are not just a loss in terms of loss in lives and productivity, but also bad press. And in the litigious world that we are living in, awful press often makes very big law suits (Abermed limited, 2010). Definitions and purpose of compliance audit Audits undertaken to confirm whether a firm is following the terms of an agreement, or the rules and regulations applicable to an activity or practice prescribed by an external agency or authority (Business dictionary). However, it can further be elaborated into: A safety audit based on regulatory or other compliance. It helps to determine whether the organisation is giving a safe and healthful workplace to his employees. Compliance auditing became increasingly famous in the 20th century. Paul A. Esposito explained in 2009 that compliance audits can be defined as a comprehensive review of organisation obedience to regulatory guidelines and that there are classically two levels of compliance-type audits. The first one is a department or equipment specific inspection. A more organized compliance evaluation would engage a wall-to-wall check of regulatory conformance. He added that audit is frequently performed in reply to regulatory needs. It is almost impossible to have a workplace free from perilous conditions all of the time, for the reason that conditions and people change every time and the potential for an unsafe condition always exists. Inspections are usually done on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. Frequency depends on the nature of the control or how often surroundings, equipment or people change, plus legal requirements. A proper wall-to-wall compliance evaluation will classically include three gears: conformance, recordkeeping and training (Paul A. Esposito, 2009). Physical surveys and inspection of plants are usually wrongly called audits according to Reesee (2001) and Auditing is a basis of information that has become very useful in present business especially with the continuous changes happening in the legal environment and thus the level of compliance should always be monitored. Todays organisations face greater regulatory inspection than ever before due to the propagation of laws and regulations in figure and difficulty as well as increased regulatory supervision and audit activity. Arter (1998) settled the four universal principles of auditing: Audits demonstrate if sufficient controls are in place. Auditors must be skilled. Audits must be proficient , fact-based and performed professionally Audits must result in information that meets auditee desires and allows problems to be solved. A far more simple definition is that it is designed to spot problems and therefore provide corrective action before there is any litigation. The audit mirrors what an employee could expect if an inspector walked through the door and an effective audit processes, verifies and identifies those fundamentals that build up health and safety (Jorgensen, Ernest B, 1998). The key value of a safety audit is that it helps shift activities from reactive to proactive. The typical inspection is a reactive one-it identifies things that must be corrected. This means that non-compliance has been detected. On the contrary, a proactive approach strives to keep away the likelihood of litigation and therefore creating a safe and healthy workplace (Jorgensen, Ernest B, 1998). The contents in the audit depend on the nature of the duties of the organisation. The overall definition remains the same but the different organisations adapt it to their respective works. Ideally, it is conducted annually and should include every part of the organisation. Such duty requires substantial preparation and a team of competent auditors; therefore an annual audit may not be feasible in many situations. Its main purpose is to identify gaps and make recommendations in order to be more efficient and to make compliance activities more effective. An audit is only a snapshot in time; it is not an alternative from ongoing management involvement (Paul A. Esposito, 2009). We can further add that it provides a process to ensure that compliance continues. Susan Burch gave a broader definition in 2008: Compliance audits are based on a compliance risk assessment and are designed to detect unintentional regulatory compliance violations by employees and other company representative. Companies doing worldwide operations take on extra regulatory challenges, as they have to consider the changing regulatory environments and cultures with different business practices. Because of the elevated risk linked with non compliance, management are under amplified examination, not only from regulators, but also from clients, employees, stockholders and business partners. Thats why almost all the organisation is developing an incorporated approach to implement a regulatory compliance framework. (Susan Burch, 2008) The standard ISO 19011 stated that auditing has three main importances namely: It forms part of the PDCA cycle, i.e. the plan, do, check, act cycle. It is a basis for self assessment of capabilities to comply to requirements It is a basis for 3rd Party Certification. The use of safety audits have shown to have a positive effect on a companys loss control initiative. In reality it has been proven that companies who perform safety and health compliance audits have fewer accidents/incidents than those who do not perform audits. Moreover, Charles D.Reesee (2002) stated 9 main objectives of compliance audits: Identify the existence of hazards. Check compliance company rules and regulations. Check compliance with OSHA rules. Determine the safety and health conditions of the workplace. Determine the safe condition of equipment and machinery. Evaluate supervisor safety and health performances. Evaluate workers safety and health performance. Evaluate progress regarding safety and health issues and progress. Determine the effectiveness of new processes or procedural changes. Moreover, he added that the topics below are the most commonly used one in the conduction of an audit: Acids Fire extinguishers First aid Alarms Fire protection Power tools Atmosphere Fumes Radiation Barriers Gas cylinders Respirators Buildings Gases Safety devices Chemicals Hand tools Signs Compressed gas cylinders Horns and signals Scaffolds Confined spaces Hoses Shapers Docks House keeping PPE Dusts Ladders Storage facilities Electrical equipment Lifting Ventilation Emergency Procedures Lighting Unsafe condition Extinguishers Machines/Materials Unsafe act Fall protection Noise Warning devices Organisation should not only allow themselves to do the bare minimum but should embark into a culture of probing, challenging, innovation and best practice implementation. The total audit approach is meant to encourage openness, acceptance that auditing is positive and important. An effective audit process measures and evaluate the relationship between task, environment and worker (Bill Glass, 1993). A safety audit subjects each area of a companys safety activity to a systematic and very critical examination. Every single component is examined to verify its level of compliance. In this way strength and weaknesses are disclosed and areas of vulnerability are highlighted. It is extremely complex and time consuming. However it is a very worthwhile activity. (Charles D.Reesee, 2002) Compliance auditing poses serious dilemma to various organisations in the world according to the State of Queensland, Department of Industrial Relations (2005). Those can be summarised as follows: If the regulatory auditors do not find any violation on his regular visit that does mean that the organisation is safe because any employee or visitor can fill a case for non compliance against the organisation. If the organisation engages a third party for conducting the audit, the agency can at any point in time report the non compliance to the government and then further action can be taken if the organisation do not remedy to the violation. Although a private audit is conducted the government under special cases may the organisation to make the audit available to them. Furthermore they added that , compliance audit do not guarantee that a workplace is free from violations as on a visit an auditor cannot inspect all the procedures and risks involved at the workplace. The hazards investigated by auditors during a compliance audit are determined by the workplace environment by the side of information obtained from specific workers data, relevant injury data and industry input. Strength, weakness and appropriate solutions of onsite auditing Compliance auditing compromise mostly of onsite auditing but those has many strength and weakness. It represents the strongest aspect of an audit. During the onsite visiting, trained and experienced professionals are expected to conduct vigorous evaluation of the site and work process. The onsite auditing is a very complex and intense process for both the auditors and the personnel. It consists mainly of the following: Talk with the site manager; Site orientation tour; Review of the health and safety management systems; Records review; Interview with personnel; Field observation; Meeting with site staff; (Lawrence B. Cahill, 2005) In support of it, he added that it is always difficult to achieve a perfect audit although the entire possible measures have been put in place in order to conduct it. He goes further by adding that the most common problems encountered are: Poor time management; Inadequate sampling and verification; Poor balance between interviews, record review and interviews; disorganized records review; Poor interviewing techniques and; Poor findings communication. Walter Willborn (2000) on the other hand, proposed some solutions in order to cater for some of the gaps that have been found by Lawrence. Those are as follows: Poor time management; The auditor should develop its own agenda accordingly and review his progress against the agenda daily make adjustments accordingly. Developing an agenda well in advance helps the auditor to ensure that all topics are being covered. Inadequate sampling and verification; Before an audit the auditor should define when the field activities are to be completed. Auditors often struggle to determine the appropriate sampling size. On the other hand, he cannot take one as a sample. The auditor can spend much time in document review that he may neglect other areas which are much as important as the other fields. Not all the sampling must be statistically representative but there must be a balance within it. There should be at least three areas of non compliance before the auditor can come to the conclusion that there is a finding. Balance between the different fields is vital. Eyes are more accurate witnesses than ears (Heraclitus, 2007). This is just to say that the auditor must be able to see all the slightest detail before reaching to any conclusion. Poor balance between among records review, interviews and observations All auditors have a tendency to incline towards their activity comfort zone. For some, its record review. For others, its field observations and for a few its interviews. For this reason the auditor will spend more time in an activity and neglect the others. The auditors must keep track of the time they have to spend on one activity and then move to another area. Occupational health and safety requirements generate thousands of paper each year and this can be one area that trips the auditor. They should recognise that although document review is very important to demonstrate compliance, it is not the whole story. If too much time is spent on this area it may compromise the efficacy of the audit. There should be a method to review and below are some steps that are easy to use: Obtain all the records needed within the time limit. Records review must be your first on-site activity. Many auditable needs can be found in the documents. Dont get overwhelmed; stay organized. Start with strategic documents, such as written programs or procedures (many Occupational Safety and Health programs, such as confined space entry, actually require written procedures). Ask for quiet time as needed. Nobody wants to be watched while they are reading. While reviewing records, develop a list of requirements so as to verify later through interviews or observations (winter, 2007). Process for compliance audit The process can be clearly described through the following points developed by Aldona Cytraus: Conduct an opening meeting with the management, stake holders and representatives of the work force to state the different objectives of the audit and introduce also the members of the audit team. Follow a small tour of the work premises in order to be become familiar with the working environment. Study the laws that will be used as standard. Develop the audit techniques which include a combination of observation of processes, examination of documents and records, and interview of management, staff members and consumers. This is mainly done to gather audit evidence so as to make the audit findings more reliable as there will be different views. All the data obtained must be reviewed by the audit team in order to present the information to the management and thus determine the level of compliance. Presentation of the report to the management and other members in a closing meeting and also mentions the corrective action that needs to be undertaken. Give the complete report to the management which includes all the facts and findings and in there clear distinction should be made between statements and observations. But on the other hand Fargason James Scott from the Institute of Internal Auditors wrote in 1993 that the most important in compliance auditing is the competence of the auditors and that everything depends on that. The auditors must have a broad knowledge of the law in question. People observe the same thing but are able to make different conclusion as all those depends on the judgement on the person and thats why the findings must be repeatedly studied in order to detect any error. He also provided a simple audit process: An audit plan should be prepared from the beginning till the end (write the objectives of the audit, methodology and verification methods). Document review should be conducted to obtain all the necessary data. Physical inspection should be conducted (e.g. observation of workers, observation of processes). Conduct interviews with all levels of personnel. Once the report is being submitted the evaluation and corrective action should be undertaken. He added some conditions so that the audit can be conducted correctly and those are: The audit team must compromise of at least one qualified person which should be the leader. A report should be developed at the end so as to state the findings. The employer should go through the report immediately after its submission in order to correct any deficiencies. The two most up to date reports must be kept for documentation. Global Perspectives on Health and Safety Every year, around the world, there are 270 million occupational accidents, 160 million workers suffers from occupational diseases and 2.2 million occupational deaths. The cost to society is several billion pounds. Britain has the lowest fatal injury rate in the European Union but although those 19.5 million days were lost due to work related ill health in 1999 against 6.5 in 1998. Musculoskeletal disorders and particularly back pain are the most frequently reported work related illness (Wilf Altman, 2000). The Health and Safety Executive (HSE, 2005) places great emphasis on the requirement systems that cover inspection, monitoring and auditing as essential features of the action required by organisation to satisfy their regulatory duties. Such systems are designed to prevent any failures that lead to accidents, incidents and prosecutions. According to them, Spain has the largest rates of accident in the European countries. The National survey of working conditions conducted in 2001 in Spain stated that 59% of the workers were exposed to hazards at work, 33% were exposed to noise while 32% were exposed to chemical pollutants and about 50% of the workers maintained static postures or perform repetitive movements during a quarter of their working time. It further stated that 37% of male and 29% of the female workers consider that their work represent a risk to their health. For the men the greater amount of hazards is found in agriculture, construction, transport and communications whereas for women those are mainly found in agriculture, mineral processing and manufacturing industries. Uncomfortable postures and physical effort are the most common occupational risk for both women and men. Some 86% of male workers interviewed believe that their health is excellent, very good or good. The state of health is worse among older workers, manual workers and women and above all among women in catering. Manual workers have a worse state of health as compared to non manual and women have a worse state of health as compared to men. Factors of change Examples of impact Micro economy Expansion of small and medium enterprises. Demographic evolution Ageing of the working population, increasing female participation rates and better qualified women. Increase in immigration.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Absence of Childrens Wisdom in the Bosnian Conflict Essays -- Bosnia

Absence of Children's Wisdom in the Bosnian Conflict â€Å"There was never a time when, in my opinion, some way could not be found to prevent the drawing of the sword†(1). In the films, Pretty Village, Pretty Flame, No Man’s Land, and The Fourth Part of the Brain, the Bosnians were not particularly nationalistic or savage, rather; they were normal people whose leaders led them into a violent struggle with their friends and neighbors, which was exacerbated by a lack of effective assistance from the international community and the UN. These films depict the majority of combatants as either people who did not entirely support the war or people who supported the war because they had been misinformed. Furthermore, the mindless atrocities, which became an unfortunate characteristic of the Bosnian War (1992-1995), were not the results of mass xenophobia or collective hatred amongst Bosnian Serbs, Croats, and Moslems, who had lived together in relative harmony for generations. Rather, these acts of senseless violence resulted from a combination of socio-economic and political factors that created a climate of fear, which radical Bosnian political leaders and their imperialistic neighbors exploited to benefit their respective countries and ethnic groups. The multi ethnic and religious composition of Bosnia would appear to indicate that underlying xenophobic and racist sentiments may have existed before the war and contributed to its outbreak. Although the Slavic population of Bosnia shared a common language and a very similar ancestry, there were minor ethnic differences between them. Bosnian Slavs were part of an early migration of Slavic tribes into the Balkans that occurred in the third century C.E., Croats and Serbs migrated... remember that a friend is a friend regardless of their ethnic composition. It is a shame that the people who fought in the Bosnian conflict did not have the simple wisdom of children, such as those from The Fourth Part of the Brain. Quotes (1) General Ulysses S. Grant Works Cited The Fourth Part of the Brain. Nenad Dizdarevic. Bosnia, 1996. Malcom, Noel. Bosnia: A Short Story. â€Å"The global menace of local strife.† The Economist. 24. May, 2003. No Man’s Land. Tanovic, Danis. Bosnia, 2001. â€Å"The poorman’s curse.† The Economist. 24. May, 2003. Powel, Samantha. The Atlantic Online. â€Å"Bystanders to Genocide.† 15. June, 2003. Pretty Village, Pretty Flame. Dragojevic, Srdjan. Yugoslavia, 1996. Rogel, Carole. The Breakup of Yugoslavia and the War in Bosnia. Schom, Alan. Napoleon Bonaparte. First Harper Perennial, 1998.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Infidelity in Othello Essays -- Othello essays

Infidelity in Othello      Ã‚   Two important scenes in Othello are the "Temptation scene" (3.3) and the "Willow scene" (4.3). Although the topic of discussion in both scenes is infidelity, the two scenes contrast more than they compare.    First, the setting is different in the two scenes. Most of the Temptation scene takes place outdoors, in a garden. The atmosphere is open but the conversation stifling. In this scene, Iago tricks Othello into believing Desdemona is cheating on him with Michael Cassio.    In the Temptation scene, Iago conjures up images of infidelity in the mind of Othello. Upon seeing Cassio leave the side of Desdemona, Iago looks on the scene with disdain. Unsuspecting Othello asks Iago what is wrong. Iago speaks of Cassio's leaving as "steal[ing] away so guilty-like, /Seeing you coming" (3.3.43-44). In this way, Iago plants his first seed of discord. Next, Desdemona beseeches Othello to reinstate Cassio. Angry at her persistence, he asks for some time alone. In this time alone, he scolds himself for his frustration. Yet Iago invades this time so he may sow more seeds of jealousy. Othello knows Iago to be honest, so when Iago seems disturbed at the relationship between Cassio and Desdemona, Othello becomes alert. Moreover, Iago continues by reminding Othello of Desdemona's deception of her father (3.3.233-235). At this point Othello begins to doubt the fidelity of his wife. Iago notes Othello's change saying, "I see this hath a little dashed your spirits" (3.3.244). He says, "I do not think but Desdemona's honest"(3.3.258). But two lines later he professes, "And yet, nature erring from itself--" (3.3.260). Then Othello begins a soliloquy expressing, "This fellow's [Iago] of exceeding honesty" (... ...ons. The main topic of discussion is the same in both scenes. Yet the characters approach the question in different ways. Furthermore, each scene has a "masculine" character and a "feminine" character. Finally, the differences in passivity and aggressiveness vary from character to character.    Works Cited and Consulted: Bevington, David, ed. William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Ferguson, Francis. "Two Worldviews Echo Each Other." Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Pitt, Angela. "Women in Shakespeare's Tragedies." Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint from Shakespeare's Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981. Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. No line nos.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Hernan Cortes - Reasons for Success :: American America History

Hernan Cortes - Reasons for Success Why was Cortes with 508 soldiers able to conquer the Aztec Empire with millions of people? Cortes was able to conquer the Aztecs for several very different reasons. In combination these reasons allowed him to have the upper hand in the conquest of Mexico. Arguably these reasons can be sorted into six different categories. The various causes for Cortes' success will be assessed in a climax pattern. To begin with the Aztecs had a harsh tribute system that was not popular among the people of Mexico. This cruel tribute system allowed Cortes to act as a liberator. Furthermore, with the Spanish brought several diseases into Mexico in witch they were immune to but the Aztecs were not. The spread of diseases such as small pox reduced the Aztec population and furthered Cortes' success unintentionally Also Marina was a tribal girl given as a gift to Cortes, she proved invaluable in translating local dialects in combination with Geronimo de Aguilar. Also an important aspect of his success was due to Montezuma's belief that Cortes was Quetzakoatl. A predominant reason for the Spanish success was due to their weaponry especially their armour and firepower. Perhaps the most important reason of all was that of Cortes' Indian allies such as the Tlaxcalans who made up the majority of his combined army. All these reasons worked together to allow Cortes, originally with 508 men to conquer the Aztec Empire of millions of people. To begin with, the Aztec's cruel tribute system allowed Cortes to act as a liberator. The process of human sacrifice was extremely common and was feared by the majority of the common people. The Aztecs as a nourishment for the Sun and all other gods needed human sacrifice. The Aztecs sacrificed between 10,000 and 50,000 victims per year. As the majority of those who were sacrificed were war captives who opposed the Aztecs, they obviously greatly feared the brutal tribute system. However not only war captives were sacrifices, common adults and children were also sacrificed at times. Cortes himself was disgusted at the thought of human sacrifice, this allowed him to gain Indian allies as well as gain respect among Mexican tribes that feared and opposed the Aztecs. The majority of the population feared the process therefore making Cortes, whom despised the process, an appealing alternative. Many followed Cortes as they shared the same views on the 'human sacrifice' topic.

Company: Delta Airline

Company: Delta Airline 1. What are the major business processes, i. e. operations, the organisation carries out? Here I did selected Delta Airlines as a company for my research. This company is providing a wide range of the air traffic facilities in different parts of the world. In other words we can say that there are many operational routs of this airline company and all the routes are very much beneficial. Another uniqueness of this company is a verity of airplanes including airbuses and jumbo etc. At this time the company owns more than seven hundred different aeroplanes of different size and capacity. Delta Airline is providing facilities to the people of the world to more from one place to another by air. The services and facilities of the company are very helpful for the passengers and also this company is providing enough revenue for the development of different airports and also in air traffic control system. They are also providing different types of devices and scanners for checking the bags and other luggage of the passengers on the airport. List the information systems that are used to automate these processes. The information system of the delta airline is governed at different levels and stages. For managing all the information and data the company is using some E-commerce platforms and these platforms are using different techniques to gather the information of the business process. And according to the requirements of the company these systems are providing managed and organized data for different purposes. Company is using different information systems to manage and boost their business accordingly. First of all they are using an online website for complete details and information’s. They are also using the ERP system to interconnect different business process and locations. Explain how ONE of these information systems is used to automate one of the processes. ERP is the main and very important information system and this system is working in different offices of the company and this system is managing the internal activities, procedures and accounts of the company. The whole working of the company is computerised and for this purpose they are using an ERP system to manage the business transactions and many other business procedures. This ERP system is managing all the internal and external working of the company and now the managers and other admin related people can get daily, weekly, monthly and annual reports of the business. How much they are investing and what is their outcome. And also which rout is more beneficial and which rout is facing lose. This system can also mange the internal accounts of the company, like different salary packages, sales and purchase etc. Hence, we can say that this information system is providing a complete access and functionality to manage the working and business of the company Describe one complete situation in which an end user uses this information system. Your description should be a textual narrative (in English), i. e. do not use diagrams. By using website (information system) the customers can get their required information and other inquires easily and accurately. By using this information system (website) the users can navigate their bookings and also they can confirm their seats by selecting source and destination. This website is also providing different guidelines and offers to the customers. This information system is completely managing the business of the company, because a complete backend system is working behind this website and this system will collect all the information’s. By using this backend system the managers can easily get their required reports and information about the business direction and trends. Who heads the development (or heads procurement decisions) of information systems in the organisation? Who is doing the planning, analysis, design, implementation and maintenance? The CEO of the company is working as head for making all the decisions about the development of the company and also there is complete chain of different management posts and everybody is contributing for achieving a single goal. The IT manager of the company is managing all the activities about the information system and for this purpose he is directly connected all the sub offices and departments of the company. In other words, the IT manager is controlling all the procedures and activations from the head office of the company. He is the also responsible for planning and analysis of the information system of the company and the technical and human resource department is designing, implementing and maintaining the information system and other decisions of the company. In other words we can say that the IT manage is governing the information system in the company. Discuss the system development methodology used? If information systems are acquired from off-the-shelf products, what is the process of procurement that is used in the organisation? The information technology always require changes and updation time to time, because new technologies and techniques are coming in the market, that’s why, it is essential for the business organizations and companies to change and upgrade their information technology systems. Similarly, the requirements of the people and customers are also being changed with the passage of time and to fulfil the requirements of the customers companies are looking to change and upgrade their information technology system and environment. The information system is very important for the professional and accurate working of the company and this information system is also increasing the working capacity of the company and on the other hand this information system is reducing their communication cost. Similarly, this information system is also increasing the business revenue of the company. In this type of business, information system can really help out the company to manage their activities more professionally and accurately, because they are operating in different countries and they need to interconnect and integrate their whole business under one platform and information system is providing this platform to interconnect all the locations and departments. Hence, we can say that the information system for the Delta Airline is very important and beneficial. Yes, the companies want to upgrade their information system structure, because the market of the information is changing and also the preferences of the customers are also changing. When we look at the information technology infrastructure of the Delta Airline then we come to know that their structure is changing due to the requirements of the customers. Now the customers wants to book and confirm the seat online and also they want to get many other inquires about the operations and timings of the flights and other rules and regulations. Now this is the very important of the company to provide this facility to the customers to get revenue, that’s why, they provided all these facilities and functionalities to compete with other airlines. Also their business strategies and preferences are also being changed and to fully accomplish the overall conditions they need to change their information system infrastructure. The up gradation in the IS (information system) infrastructure will help out the companies to increase their revenue and also the customer satisfaction will also increase. Another main benefit of this strategy is the value and survival in the market, because the companies can only survive with changes in their business strategies and in technology infrastructure. This strategy will not cost them very much, because they have a complete platform and infrastructure and they only need to upgrade the system with some new technologies and techniques. Discuss, in detail, the data collection techniques you used to answer the above questions. I did use many different data collection techniques to complete this research and to answer these questions. The literature and online searching technique is providing a wide range of different information about the company. The web site of the company contains complete history, business process, business strategies and many other important information and data about the company. Another technique which I did use for the collection of the data was the online search about the operations and information system of the company. And also, I contact with employees of the company to get the information about their managerial layers and also about the managerial activities and responsibilities. I also interview some other people and customers of the compony to get the information about the business activities and also about the information system of the company. In other words we can say that I did collect the information and data by using many different strategies and techniques. Give the details of the people you interviewed to answer the above questions. Include examples of the questions you asked to answer these questions For of all I ask some questions to the customers of the company about the services and operations of the company and how they are getting their required information and services from the company. For example, †¢ How the company is providing the facilities and services online? †¢ Are you satisfied with the Information system of the company? †¢ How they are managing feedbacks and requests? The management and human resource department of the company is very helpful, because I asked many questions to the human resource agents of the company about their activities and information system activation. For example, †¢ How many information systems are working in the company? †¢ What is the management level and who is governing the information system of the company? †¢ What are the main operations and service of the company? Approximately, I interview more than ten people including the customers and employees of the company for answering and completing this research.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Legal Ethics in Singapore

Legal Ethics Laws, regulations and codes of conduct attempts to define standards of behaviour for lawyers in society. They form an important part of the jurisdiction’s regulatory process. These laws and codes of conduct demand a certain standard in which legal professionals should adhere to in their professional and private lives. It also represents a standard of ethical behaviour defined by legislators and professional bodies. In Singapore, there are a number of primary sources of legal ethics. The following are the main sources of legal ethics: * The Legal Profession Act Subsidiary legislation * Practice directions from the courts * Practice directions form the Law Society * Judicial decisions and opinions on legal ethics Lawyers are bound to these laws and regulation and must adhere to them diligently so as to not straw away from ethical behaviour or to a harsher extent of being banned from practising law in Singapore. In essence, a lawyer’s duty can be categorized i nto two main groups. They are the lawyers (I) duty to the court and (ii) duty to the client. The tables below explain briefly, the various duties lawyers have to the court and to their clients. Lawyer’s duty to the Court Duty | Explanation| Truthfulness in Court| – Rule 2(2) A Professional Conduct Rules- Must not mislead the court| Responsibility to Client’s Conduct| – Responsible for client’s conduct and representation of the case| Honoring Undertaking to the Court| – A Lawyer’s word must be his bond| Respect for the Court| – Lawyer’ conduct must be consistent with standing, dignity & authority of the court | Responsibility in Assisting Administrative Justice| – Lawyers are officers of the court| Lawyer’s duty to the Client Duty | Explanation| Honesty| – Honesty in all dealings with the client| Diligence & Competence| – Lawyer is expected to exercise necessary skills and diligently apply himself to the case| Confidentiality| – Obligation to maintain confidentiality of all communication between him and client| Conflict of Interest| – Lawyer’s conduct must not be influenced by personal or private interests| A lawyer’s challenge is to balance his responsibilities to assist the court with his duty to look after the best interest of his client. In essence, his duty to the administration of justice is weighed higher than the duty he has to his client. However, it brings about a concern for lawyers when defending their clients. This can be seen in situations in where a lawyer has to exercise his judgement in introducing evidence to the court. If the lawyer does not exercise his judgement in the favour of the court, he is putting his client at a disadvantage. Therefore it is extremely important that a lawyer does adhere to his duty to the court without compromising the position or case of his in any way for it to be advantageous for all parties.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Social Criticism in William Blakes Chimney Sweeper

Social Criticism in William Flake's â€Å"The Chimney Sweeper† ‘The Chimney Sweeper' by William Blake criticizes child labor and especially society that sees the children's misery but chooses to look away and it reveals the change of the mental state of those children who were forced to do such cruel work at the age of four to nine years. It shows the change from an innocent child that dreams of its rescue to the child that has accepted its fate. Those lives seem to oppose each other and yet if one reads the poems carefully, one can see that they have a lot in common too.The poem was inspired by the first laws that were supposed to make the chimney sweeper's life better, but since those laws were loosely enforced Blake wanted to draw attention to their horrible situation and wanted society to be aware of this problem to reinforce the existing and make new laws. Blake shows the life of two different chimney sweepers, one very naive child, Tom, that somehow managed to keep some of its childlike innocence and one that he calls ‘experienced' that sees his life more realistic and shows who is to blame for this situation.One can find many phrases that underline Tom's innocence throughout the mom but the symbols of the hair that is compared to a lamb's wool and the White hair' confirm that first impression one gets when reading the poem. Little Tom's dream is another symbol of his innocence. He dreams of an angel that comes to rescue him with a ‘bright key. In Gardener's book Flake's Innocence and Experience Retraced he comments on the dream but also has a very interesting theory of the black coffin's meaning.The gowned figure of Christ appears in the illustrations to all these poems, and in ‘The Chimney Sweeper' the same gowned figure releases the sys from the coffin â€Å"of black†, which epitomizes the horizontal flues (the size of a child's coffin) which killed so many infant sweeps (Gardner 66). His theory is that the black c offins symbolize the small chimneys where many children got suck and suffocated. Which is a reasonable theory; chimneys that were built at that time were made very narrow and many children weren't able to get out of them anymore.Here Blake criticizes that many children had to Jeopardize their life to do their Job. At first there was a poor attempt to regulate this: children were sweeping the chimneys thou clothes so the clothes could not get caught and imprison the children in a chimney but this solution was inhumane as it takes away the child's dignity and another point that had to be called to attention at that time: The children's rights as they did not have any. And it wasn't Just about the children's rights but also without clothes the children hurt their knees and elbows very much.This was even worse because of the infections through the soot as chimney sweepers were washed rarely and were sleeping on the soot they swept during the day and in a black and very narrow room with all the other chimney sweepers. Blake also criticizes that those children are in complete darkness most of their time. They ‘rose in the dark (line 21), spend their day sweeping chimneys and when they were done they would walk from door to door asking for more work and then got back into their black rooms to go to sleep.So this stands in contrast with the life little Tom dreams of where he is being washed, can run free and enjoy his life as children should be able to do. ‘And washed in the river, and shine in the sun/ then naked and white, all their bags left behind/ they rise upon the clouds and sport in the wind' (line 6-18). Tom's dream creates a bit of hope in the reader that Tom might be able to be happy and consoled by this dream but this hope is dismissed at the end of the poem.Though Tom is warm and happy inside, the cold morning shows that in reality the angel's consolation is not much of a consolation and the reader knows that even the older boys help that the hair cannot be spoiled if it is shorn off would not help much either. Also those words like dark and harm create a baleful atmosphere and through the broken rhyme scheme the reader is thrown back into Tom's dark reality. So at the ND the reader does not have a choice but to deal with this reality and think about the boys situation which is what Blake intended The conditions of the places the children slept in were another point that Blake criticizes. He sleeps in soot instead of the early mother's bosom or lap. But Just as the mother shields the child from the intense beams of God's love until he is able to bear them alone, so the sweeper's soot is ironically his shield' (Inurn 19). As this quote states the child should sleep on the mothers lap instead of soot that a child is supposed to be loved and taken care of but instead it is sold and surrounded by luckless.I disagree with the second statement that the mother shields a child from the intense beams of God' and what it is compar ed to; the reason why I disagree is that Blake was not a very religious person for his time and I doubt that he meant to draw a connection between the mothers loving shield to an ironic shield of soot. This interpretation is going away too much from the original statement and there is too much imagination in this thought. Blake criticizes that children were so young when they were sold to be chimney sweepers that they couldn't talk properly yet.The reason for this was that the chimneys were so narrow an older child would not be able to crawl through. This fact is shown very clear in the first line of both poems but the picture gets much more distinct in the second and third line where the child says he could not even pronounce the word ‘sweep' and says Weep instead. Those children were too young to be aware of their situation until they were enslaved, and when they did understand it, they would cry like Tom when he gets his hair cut.The only consolation the other older boys ca n give is that now his beautiful white hair cannot e spoiled. But if this is a good consolation at all is up to the reader to decide. Blake does not indicate whether he agrees or disagrees. From the mature or maybe the experienced point of view, it is in fact no consolation at all but little Tom seems to believe it is a good one. When my mother died I was very young, and my father sold me while yet my tongue could scarcely cry N. ‘pep! Weep! Weep! † (line 1-3). But the M. ‘pep!Weep! Weep! † does have two meanings. The first one I Just explained but it also suggests that even the innocent child is suffering and shows it through weeping. Though he does not consciously realize it yet, subconsciously he is weeping and not Warm and happy at all. The nameless second child uses this sentence again, but here it does not symbolize the child's inability to speak but the experience that is causing the child to weep. Another point of indirect criticism is that chimney sw eepers were punished if they disobeyed.One is not told directly what was to happen to the children if they did not do as they were told one only knows that the child is going to be harmed if the work is not done ‘so if all do their duty they need not fear harm' (line 24). This criticizes the way those children were treated. Some sweepers had to climb up a chimney while the fire was burning in the fire place; if the child refused they were forced ‘by fire, slaps, prodding with poles, or by the pricking of the bottoms of their feet with pins' (Inurn 17).Blake also criticizes the church, God and society. In the Songs of Innocence, little Tom's dream can be seen as a sign from God or from heaven and one can view it as a metaphorical representation of the church. So it implies that the chimney sweepers believe in the church and God's help Just as they believe in the dream's message. This meaner the church's help is compared to the angels consolation that if Tom was ‘a g ood boy/ he'd have God for his father and never want Joy (line 19-20) which is no consolation.This is Flake's indirect criticism of the church that does not help those children and of God. He raises the question of how God can be truly good if he sees this injustice and does not act to prevent those children from being harmed. And Punter explains in this book about the Songs that Blake used to ‘†¦ Associate the angelic with goodness but increasingly as the years went by he connected it with a mind of hypocritical self-righteousness†¦ ‘ (Punter 17) so the angel in Tom's dream would not be a good sign but a symbol for a hypocritical society.In the second poem the criticism goes on as the question is raised where the parent's of the chimney sweeper are, since it is their duty to take care of their child; but they left the child and went to pray to God instead. And there is more criticism of the parent's: The child asks if they sold it because it was happy and if i t is its time to suffer now because it has been happy once? This question is meant for the reader to think about if it can e right that a child has been sold because it did not show how much it is suffering. In the second poem, the reader gets to know that the child is not allowed to go to church to pray to God.Blake criticizes that children were outcasts of society Just because of their profession and there are records showing that chimney sweepers were thrown out of church if they tried to participate mass even if they were wearing the right clothes, which only a few chimney sweepers were provided with in the first place. As an instance in what a manner these poor children are treated, I remember n anecdote of a little band of them, who had the fortune to be supplied with Sundays clothing; their faces, however, proclaimed them chimney-sweepers.Curiosity, or information that the churches were houses of God, carried them within the gates of a church; but alas! They were driven out b y the beadle, with this taunt, What have chimney sweepers to do in a Church? (Inurn 18). Since there were many families that were so poor at the time the poem was written that they could not feed and sold them in order to prevent them from starvation. This is what Gardner meaner n this quotation: ‘The Gap between the respectable and the non-respectable poor was therefore widening' (Gardner xvii).The two Songs show some contrast but as one can see in the criticism there are many symbols that show up in both poems. Little Toms white hair that is shorn off shows his innocence that is being taken away from him yet the nameless child in the second poem is referred to as a ‘little black thing, the nameless child is almost seems black among the white snow, which shows that his innocence already is lost and that experience has given him the black color that makes him stand out from civilization. Nowadays one could also compare this to black people being outcasts of society in Am erica that were sold Just like the chimney sweepers.And the word sold is meant to stand out in the second line. Just like the black slaves in America those children were sold to a master to be sweeps. This would have been criticized a lot more nowadays as slavery still was quite common back then when the poem was written. The child in the second poem does not have a name and there are several reasons for that: Blake did not want to focus on one child and its situation but show that in act there are many children and therefore the child doesn't have a gender so it doesn't represent Just boys or Just girls as they were treated the same.This is a contrast to the first chimney sweeper Tom, who has a name, emotions and feelings so one can sympathies with him. The second child's experience is not presented as clearly as Tom's innocence but through its unveiled vision of its destiny and the way it accepts its fate. The child knows it has been wronged by its parent's who were supposed to ta ke good care of it and sold it like and object but it also has been ranged by ‘†¦ God and the priest and the King who make up a heaven of our misery (line 11). They try to pretend it's a perfect world and do not look at those children too closely, but since they make up a heaven†¦ (line 13) – a better world, they clearly must be aware of the misery around them. Also Blake is playing with the reader's conscience in the Songs of Innocence; the child says that he is sweeping your' chimney. The reader is included and addressed directly this ‘implicates the reader in the circle of exploration' (Seasick 53). This is also shown in Garners book: Alone among all the voices of Innocence, the chimney sweeper speaks from unrelieved destitution and an enforced self-reliance; his counterpart in Experience speaks from familiar exploration.The two sweeps state a condition, the difference being in relationships, as the illustrations signify (52). Blake does not speak for himself in his poems, he creates a narrator that states his thoughts; this way Blake can show two different states of mind or point of views without disagreeing with his previous statement and does not become unbelievable through those contradictions that may result from this. Blake believes that one can't separate those states (innocence and experience) from each other, they Just show the same world from a different perspective.Flake's poems presents a contradiction between the states of innocence and experience, two phases through which all people must pass. It shows the untainted world of an innocent child against the mature world of experience and corruption. Tom is both innocent and yet somehow experienced too because of his hard work. When he is conscious he is innocent but in his dreams – even though they are very good and innocent, he still knows that it is to the right way he is being treated, because he is dreaming of a better life; ‘†¦ He child must ind ulge in symbolic compensations for his real lot†¦ ‘ (Adams 261). One can also see this in the contrast in the sentence that ‘†¦ If he'd be a good boy†¦. ‘ (line 19). Being a good boy meaner doing his duty here. The contrast in this sentence is that actually people are supposed to be good and do their duty, but in this case to do his duty would mean that he hurts himself and maybe dies trying to ‘be good'. Blake does not ally with one particular point of view since all humans have to go through both tastes.In the Songs of Innocence life is seen through the child's eyes thus showing the innocence but in the Songs of Experience it almost appears as if it is seen through the eyes of an adult, showing that children can't stay innocent in those conditions. It shows that sooner or later the child can't believe in those promises the angel gives in the Songs of Innocence and that it will lose its innocence. This innocence ‘†¦ Can be both imag inative and pathetic at the same time – imaginative because the innocent child can transcend' his outer environment†¦ ND pathetic because the child so obviously suffers from that outward existence' Adam 206 This Quotation will underline my statement that even though the child seems innocent, it is affected by the horrible things that are happening to the child. It also shows the conflict that the reader has to deal with: does he believe in Tom's innocence and hopes everything will work out for Tom so he can stay happy and warm or does the reader believe that the child cannot be this naive and even try to believe the angel. In my opinion the reader cannot believe in Tom's happy ending as he knows too much.As we read the mom, sitting beneath the chimney newly swept in Golden Square, our discomfort arises not from the necessity of chimney-sweeping, but from the sense that a child may belong so little to the living that he is driven for necessary solace to a posthumous explo ration (Gardner 52). Gardner shows that the reader will have to decide what he believes in the end. Works Cited Primary Sources Beer, John. Romanticism, Revolution and Language. The Fate of the Word from Samuel Johnson to George Eliot. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Bentley, Gerald Decades, Jar. William Blake. The Critical Heritage. London and Boston