Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Many people have a specific person who inspires them, but many people still walk from day to day wondering who thereÃ¢â¬â¢s is, I know mine is my mother. Anybody can be the person who will inspire you, from a friend, to even a pet dog. A person who inspires you is a person who cares about you and what choice that you make. An adult who inspired me is my mother, she believes in me, cares about me, and always helps me. My mother believes in me, in everything I do, and is always positive about it. Every decision, task, and every level that I concur, my mom is always there, believing in me that I will succeed. Graduating 5th grade and moving up to 6th grade was a big step, just like graduating 8th grade and moving up to 9th grade was. But my mother believed that I would still do well in school and would enjoy it alot. Moving up a grade was always a bit scary, but my mother always had my back, and told me to just do my best, and have fun. With my mothers support I enjoy high school a lo t more than I thought I would. My mother believing in me helped motivate me, and show that I can do everything that I put my mind to. But my mother believing in me isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the only way that she inspired me, but that my mom also cared about me. My mother never let a day go by without asking me how my day was or telling me how much she loved me. She always wanted to make sure IÃ¢â¬â¢m having fun, and enjoying life, with no distractions. All kids have heard different sayings that their mom says like, call me when you get there which for many kids they hate to hear it. But my mom says them because she cares what happens to me and she wants me to be always safe and doing the right thing. Whenever things get tough I can always come to my mom and get her opinion. Many kids arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very close with their mom but I know I can share anything with my mom and that she will support me always. Not only is my mom very caring, and kind but she is also very helpful. A person who believes in me, cares about me, and helps me always would have to be my mother. Through the thick and thin she always has had my back in everything, and trusts me. Like lots of other mothers, she makes sure that I am enjoying life, and that everyday I feel inspired, to do something great. My mother truly believes in me, cares about me, and is always willing to help me with everything. Hopefully you have an adult that inspired you like my mom inspires me.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Historical theories are just like any theory Ã¢â¬â are subject to controversy among different populations and groups. Two of the most imminent historians, Oscar Handlin and William McNeil gave interesting viewpoints backed up by strong points. In Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American History, Volume II, gave an interesting overview of how these two elite historians are able to state their points so clearly. As highly influenced as their works are which allowed me to see from within their internal Ã¢â¬Å"window;Ã¢â¬ I find myself agreeing more with HandlinÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. According to Oscar Handlin from Truth in History (1979), gave a startling concept of how historical truth is based on the obvious evidences Ã¢â¬â those that we can understand and interpret. Handlin gave implicit indications that history does ring truth due to the fact that our current evidence of the past should be based on thoughtful analysis and not just necessary based on numerical or statistical evidence as those obtained by scientific measures. Oscar Handling says that evidence is chronological, evidence is vocabulary, and evidence is context. Fact is something of common ground for all historians despite the difference in their interpretation and that scientific methods must be used to distinguish between fact and opinions. McNeil on the other hand, have a different opinion on this matter. McNeil speculates that historical truth is not influence by the desires or vision of the viewer, but is actually solid scientific evidence itself. McNeilÃ¢â¬â¢s essay, Ã¢â¬Å"Truth, Myth, and HistoryÃ¢â¬ , gave an emphasis on the falsehood of historical truth, and also highlights the idea that it have no Ã¢â¬Å"scientific methodologyÃ¢â¬ behind it, making it nothing but judgments, choices, and interpretive opinions. McNeil believe that all the Ã¢â¬Å"evidenceÃ¢â¬ becomes nothing but a type of collection, almost like in literature for the reader to understand and interpret but does not give a credible Ã¢â¬Å"meaning or intelligibility to the record of the past. Ã¢â¬ McNeil argues that truth is more likely a myth and distinguished by different groups in different situation at different time. In other words, historical truth is more like the way with which one interprets the material depending on their circumstance and environment. Almost like a self-fulfilled prophecy of the human mind and not actual facts. He further speculates that every culture has its own version of truth; truth about its own culture as well as the Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ about other cultures. Truth to one person may not be truth to another. He later concludes that all these outside forces of culture, background, relationships, and society affect the level of truth whether the individual realizes it or not. History tends to be biased based because they heavily relied on what the truth means to each person in a personal manner. McNeil believes that history is a myth and becomes self validating. In my analysis of the work of these two striking viewpoints, I must admit that I agree more with Handling for a variety of factors. McNeil gives implications of his viewpoints on the truth and validity of history and how he feels that scientific evidence must be present for history to be consider a truth. I find this to be a flawed approach because to base every piece of knowledge upon Ã¢â¬Å"scientific evidenceÃ¢â¬ has a bit of hypocritical ring to it. It is also important to point out that current historical findings are not found according to historical viewpoints alone, but is a mixture of scientific technology and many experts from all categorical discipline that weave up our current knowledge of history as well. Just because we canÃ¢â¬â¢t prove something doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it does not exist unless we can prove that it is indeed nonexistent. I believe that as humans, we all have an original curiosity for what we know now and just because something cannot be measured scientifically does not necessary label it as untrue. For instance, psychology was once considered Ã¢â¬Å"untrueÃ¢â¬ by scientific standards but have now find its way into the scientific arena. On the other hand, scientific evidence are not always Ã¢â¬Å"trueÃ¢â¬ when new evidence proves that the previous Ã¢â¬Å"truthÃ¢â¬ is indeed false. This gave me reasons to believe that it is better to take on a flexible approach when it comes to historical evidence. In defense of HandlingÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint, historians also use scientific tools such as DNA replications and half-life techniques to determine the age and location of its artifacts. The truth in History is off course, as important as the truth in any discipline. History is based on facts derived from the past and thus provides a solid foundation on the truth of the information obtained. Historians are able to obtain the historical information from different locations and find sources of evidence or those leading to evidence. The truth in history is thus, built on the foundation of facts and grounded in common knowledge and understanding. History is depended upon to develop a society and used as a tool to correct political mistakes of the past. Historians have the necessary skills and tools to analyze and validate historical events, evidence, and facts Ã¢â¬â as much as scientists have the skills and advanced technology to analyze scientific evidence. Therefore, HardingÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is more accepting and that history is indeed based on the truth and knowledge of historical evidence and the foundation of our diverse understanding and development as a civilized community. Work Cited: Handlin, Oscar. Truth in history. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap P, 1979. Madaras, Larry, and James M. SoRelle. Taking Sides Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in American History, Vol. II. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Schwandner, Stephanie. Albanian Identities Myth and History. New York: Indiana UP, 2002.
The beautiful island of Bermuda is a Ã¢â¬Ëfish hookÃ¢â¬â¢ shape island located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 575 miles east of North Carolina. Bermuda is considered by many to be a wonderful tourist destination with turquoise waters and first class accommodations and activities. Perhaps we never knew that Bermuda is actually composed of over 100 islands. We might also not have known that due to the Gulf Stream, Bermuda has the most northerly coral reefs in the world. Bermuda technically is a British colony, but they have been self-governed since 1620. When we examine the island of Bermuda from the viewpoint of the tourism industry, we can learn much from BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s successes as well as their attempts to revitalize their tourism industry. Hold on to your shorts as we examine tourism policy planning in a pink sand paradise. (www. bermudatourism. com) In looking at Bermuda for the purposes of tourism policy planning we are initially reminded of how many positive realities we can see in the Bermuda tourism picture. Needless to say, tourism is obviously a major part of BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Bermuda is an interesting case study in that they were considered the ideal model for a narrowly defined tourist destination, but in the early 1990s fell into less prosperous times. Perhaps one could say that when it came to making money from the tourism market, Bermuda became too Ã¢â¬Ëfat and happyÃ¢â¬â¢ for their own long-term good. Michael V. Conlin sheds more light on this phenomenon when he writes in his case study on Bermuda tourism that Ã¢â¬Å"notwithstanding the long-term success of its tourism industry, Bermuda experienced a significant deterioration of its visitor count beginning in the early 1990s that had a serious impact on the country as a whole. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 1). By studying ups and downs of the tourism economy in Bermuda and the unfolding of BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism committee work, we can hopefully learn some lessons to enable us to practice more successful and responsible tourism in the future. Bermuda is considered a mature international tourist destination that usually is quite successful and economically prosperous. By the middle of 1992, however, Ã¢â¬Å"BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism leaders had recognized that BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism industry was not immune to the economic climate or, indeed, to the changes that were taking place in the global tourism marketplace. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 13). One of the changes that was taking place in the global tourism marketplace was that technological advances and increases in personal wealth were greatly boosting the tourism industry. In light of the great global growth of the tourism industry, we should obviously see the need for more sophisticated planning and management in the this industry. In this light we can begin to see that tourism planning in many cases needs to be an ongoing, flexible, and continually evolving process. Perhaps this revelation was something that the Bermuda tourism board never sincerely grasped or believed until the 1990s. Once this revelation was understood, the Bermuda tourism authorities were in position to take steps to address the critical issues and problems that were eroding their prosperity and market position. By the time the year 1992 arrived, we could say that the Bermuda tourism board was ready to do some serious tourism planning! When it comes to tourism planning we can say that there are believed to be two sides to the planning process as well as the need for a type of corporate planning model. Indeed, Conlin writes that Ã¢â¬Å"planning within the tourism industry takes place at both the micro level and the macro level. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 2) Macro level planning can be defined as dealing with the growth of tourist destinations as geographic, political, and social units. In terms of the island of Bermuda, we can learn that Ã¢â¬Å"many islands are particularly susceptible to the to the consequences of poor planning given their small size and the relatively greater impact that tourism can have on their development. Ã¢â¬ (Stonich, 1995). Conlin seeks for us to understand that Ã¢â¬Å"increasingly, the failure to plan will not simply be a cosmetic issue but a more fundamental economic, ecological, and social concern. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 4). The micro level of tourism planning could be said to involve specific actions that operators undertake once they have honestly evaluated the realities of their business activities. In one sense, this is where a strategic planning and goal planning model are put into place. Conlin writes that ideally this model will be Ã¢â¬Å"based on the goal of matching an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths with the market opportunities presented by a changing external environment. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 3). In this model we will see such elements as a mission statement, stakeholder analysis, implementation, and strategic control. We might say that macro level planning in the tourism industry is ultimately concerned with the growth and sustainability of a tourism destination. On the whole, we can say that when it comes to successful tourism planning at the micro and macro level there is the need to Ã¢â¬Å"match product, price, location, and management expertise with the market and its expectations in a way that will attract investment. Increasingly, this is done with the needs of the host community as a major focal point. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 5). In this case, the host community is, of course, Bermuda, with its turquoise waters, pink sands, and tempting culinary delights. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s continue on to see how these concepts were applied specifically to the case of Bermuda in the 1990s. We have already begun to see that Ã¢â¬Å"as BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism industry moved into the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s, it was characterized by a sense of complacency, a reluctance to innovate, a decreasing level of service quality, and a deteriorating physical plant. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. ). At this point the tourism planning committee needed to make some changes to move Bermuda from being stagnated and losing market share to a place of revitalization and wisdom for the future. In 1992 they created the Commission on Competitiveness which was to examine the status of tourism and international business on the island. The commission was to explore new areas for economic stimulus. Conlin writes that Ã¢â¬Å"the mandate of the commission reflected a broad concern about national economic well-being in a rapidly changing international marketplace. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 15). The Commission on Competitiveness had representatives from the tourism industry, from the public sector, from educational fields, and from international business firms. Ã¢â¬Å"To achieve a high level of community involvement, the Tourism Planning Committee created 16 task forces under the leadership of prominent local stakeholders. At any given time, this structure resulted in approximately 120 persons being actively involved in the process of examination. It was truly a community activity. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 16). Some of the important findings of the Tourism Planning Committee include understanding the following conclusions: Bermuda is a model for developing tourism as a basis for a prosperous economy. Its past success should provide confidence that Bermuda tourism can improve in the future. The economy and quality of life in Bermuda are dependent upon tourism. Changes in world tourism, including new products, choices, and competition, will dictate many of the circumstances to which Bermuda will have to adapt. The cruise ship visitor cannot replace the stay over visitor for economic impact on the island. BermudaÃ¢â¬â¢s tourism product is overpriced compared with some of its competitors, and it does not satisfy the price-value expectations of visitors. Bermuda must accept the need for fundamental change. It cannot dictate the terms of world tourism. This will require significant investment of resources and effort. There are no simple, single, or quick fixes for improving the tourism industry in Bermuda. Conlin,1995). When we assess the actions taken by the Commission on Competitiveness we can see that their work was arguably thorough, with many valuable conclusions and recommendations. We should not be surprised that the actual implementation of these recommendations was slow in process. Conlin writes that Ã¢â¬Å"the process of adoption was slow and involved trade-offs between competition interests. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 17). In this situation we can see that when it came to revitalizing the economic conditions in Bermuda there existed Ã¢â¬Å"an underlying theme of a call to a greater degree of public participation. (Haywood, 1988,p. 105). In this vein, we can also learn about what has come to be called Ã¢â¬Ëcommunity inclusive tourism planningÃ¢â¬â¢. Involving the community in tourism policy planning often has positive consequences for policies being adopted and eventually successfully implemented. Including the community results in an increase in communication between the policy makers and the public, but this new relationship also carries with it the responsibility to carry on this communication and deal with the outcomes of policies and strategies. With growing concern about the environmental and social impacts of tourism, planning also has become more integrated (Gravel, 1979) and has matured to the point where it must consider the impact of tourism development on a number of fronts, not just site-specific economic sectors. (Conlin, p. 6). In this decade, all of us have become familiar with the going green movements, so it should not surprise us to hear that there is a call for more inclusive policy planning in the tourism industry. As we near the end of our brief look at the unfolding of tourism policy planning in Bermuda, we can also learn about the destination life cycle theory of tourism development. According to Conlin, Ã¢â¬Å"the product life cycle continues to play an important role in marketing management, including applications to the hospitality industry. Ã¢â¬ (Conlin, p. 5). The idea of adapting oneÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to changing situations brought on by the stages of the product life cycle, when applied to tourist destinations, is called the destination life cycle theory. (Conlin, p. 5). A. M. Morrison described the life cycle as: The product Life Cycle idea suggests all hospitality and tourism services pass through four predictable stages: (1) introduction, (2) growth, (3) maturity, (4) decline. Marketing approaches need to be modified with each stage. Avoiding a decline is the key to long-term survival. Atlantic City, New Jersey is a great example of a travel destination that went through one life cycle (from a fashionable to a rather seedy seaside resort) and then got a completely new lease on life as an exciting gambling destination. Morrison, 1989). We see that through the efforts of the Tourism Planning Committee the island of Bermuda had the opportunity to revitalize and reposition itself to have its own Ã¢â¬Ënew lease on life. We learned that even though a tourist destination may be considered to be mature, ideal, beautiful, and economically prosperous, there may and almost certainly will be the need to address declining and/or changing market position and then take wise and strategic steps to rejuvenate itself. We also hopefully learned that tourism planning should be community-based, especially in a place such as Bermuda where the population is considered to be a major part of the tourism product. Mark Twain once wrote of Bermuda Ã¢â¬Å"the deep peace and quiet of the country sink into oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body and bones and give the conscience a restÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ For anyone going to Bermuda, we wish you all the best in your activities and in your personal encounter with the deep peace and quiet of the island.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Assessment of Office Worker - Essay Example As part of his main responsibility at work, David spends most of his time answering customer queries through phone calls. Even though David has his own workstation, his working area is also used by other staff members whenever he is not present in the office. Since Tom has been absent from work, David has no choice but to accept the additional work load. For several months, David has constantly been complaining about body aches that usually start with the neck portion going across the shoulders and arms. Despite the effort of a nurse from the occupational health team, DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s overall working health condition has not improved. Chronic pain associated with the upper limbs could significantly affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s work performances, mood, sleeping habits and social relationship with other people. (Carr & Mann, 2000) For this reason, it is necessary to control and manage the main sources of upper limb pains in order to increase the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ attention and performance at work. (Asmundson, Norton, & Vlaeyen, 2004) will evaluate DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s current working condition within the call centre environment. Based on research evidences and other relevant legislative requirements, the control risk factors that may contribute to musculoskeletal problems will be identified and critically analysed. Eventually, the researcher will assess his workstation in relation to the standard office chair without arm rests; the standard wrist rest design for keyboard and mouse; a telephone headset with a single ear phone and a microphone; the new flat screen monitor that he uses in the office; a typical rectangular desk that measures 1600mm wide by 800mm deep. Prior to the conclusion, the researcher will recommend new strategies that could lessen the intensity level of DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s upper limb discomfort. Office workers are very much exposed to working environment hazards related to noise, changes in the room temperature, and other ergonomic-related problems that
Sunday, July 28, 2019
About a STD called Chancroid - Research Paper Example Today, in the United States, medications and treatments are available to treat and, possibly, cure certain sexually transmitted diseases; however, that was not always the case in our past and certainly not the case for many other countries around the world. There are quite a few sexually transmitted diseases that are more familiar than others; including gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and lastly, chancroid. Chancroid, which is possibly unfamiliar to many, is uncommon in the United States today, but it is a serious condition that is spreading throughout parts of Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean (Comacho, 2012). History Sexually transmitted diseases, or STDs, like chancroid, have probably been around since as long as human civilization. For our ancestors, lacking sophisticated sciences and healthcare, distinguishing between one STD and another with similar symptoms could become quite difficult. It is estimated that chancroid, specifically, was prevalent in t he United States and Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries, most likely, caused by mass migrations, economic expansions, and the availability of sex for sale. In the earliest part of the 20th century Britain estimated that, at least, 10% of the population was infected with syphilis, even, more had contracted gonorrhea, and chancroid was equally as common as syphilis. However, by the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s percentages of chancroid decreased rapidly. In the United States the experience was rather similar. After World War II, with the advent of antibiotics, STD statistics as a whole declined and chancroid, specifically, dropped 80-fold between 1947 and 1997. Antibiotics, a less prevalent sex trade, better economic opportunities for women, and reduced migration, also, contributed to the positive decline of Chancroid in America. As can be seen from the chart below the statistical numbers of chancroid have continued to drop with great consistency. There was a few years in th e mid-1980s and early 1990s, where the occurrences of chancroid spiked. Experts insist that this coincided with a spike in sex trade and drug-trafficking that negatively highlighted that portion of the decade (Goldman & Schafer, 2011). Discussion In order to understand the specifics of chancroid better it is necessary to detail the nature of the disease, the symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, as well as other relevant information. Chancroid is defined as a sexually transmitted disease that is characterized by inguinal lymphadenitis and genital ulcers, which is cause by Haemophilus ducreyi, or H. ducreyi, which is a gram negative cocco bacillus (Goldman & Schafer, 2011). It is most commonly suffered by men, but women, by no means, are immune. It appears to thrive in developing countries and where the sale of sex is highest. H. ducreyi enters the body through any breaks in the epithelium, or skin, during intercourse. It may take as long as a few days or as short as a few hours before pa pules appear. Within a 2 to 3 day pustules will ulcerate. These ragged-edged ulcers are extremely painful, are, sometimes, covered in grayish or yellow exudate, and it may bleed when scratched. As can be seen in the illustrations below, men display their chancroid externally; the lesions appear on the foreskin, coronal sulcus, and shaft of the penis. A womanÃ¢â¬â¢s experience with this condition presents itself a little differently. In women chancroid will develop the ulcers, but they
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Network Security - Essay Example Project Planning: Parameters of project planning and resources to be utilized are identified. 2. Risk Analysis and Review: The internal and external threats, to which an organization is exposed to, are identified especially risks related to the geographic location. 3. Business Impact Analysis: The critical operations of the business unit are evaluated and resources that are needed to operate them are identified. 4. Recovery Strategy: Temporary recovery guidelines are created for the business units that are exposed to the period between a predictable disaster and ready for normal operations. Alternative recovery strategies are also planned and important data and information of the business units are copied and stored in a safe location. 5. Plan development: Right people to conduct the recovery operation are identified and methods to notify these people are established. Methods to evaluate the operational impact and recovery activation are also determined. Steps to minimize the risks a nd the restoration of the system to normal after attack are also created. A Business Continuity Plan is the milestone of this phase. 6. Training: The employees that were identified to be involved in the recovery process are made to understand the BCP. 7. Testing: A fake situation is created to test the BCP and evaluate it to ensure its working. 8. Maintenance: The plan is updated on a frequent basis with change in business. (Heng, 2004, p. 2). Part 3 A Disaster Recovery Planning is a planning that results in a document called the Disaster Recover Plan which Ã¢â¬Å"explores how a network recovers from a disaster that could either damage its data or hinder and stop its functioning. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial auditors need this document as a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s... A large corporation is supposed to have a large volume of data and information that needs to be protected from any kind of theft and any kind of loss due to natural disasters. This essay follows and discusses the ways such corporation are using to increase their network security. A large corporations should implement device security: physical and logical, that are described in the essay. Physical device security implies the placing of a copy of the original device in a location where it is safe from malicious attackers. However, logical security protects the device from non-physical attacks. This essay also refers to some systems, that are used to establish network security and plan it's proper work. Business Continuity Planning (BCP) is discussed, that is a planning that helps to identify the internal and external threats an organization is exposed to. A Disaster Recovery Planning explores how a network recovers from a disaster that could stop its functioning. An Acceptable Use Policy (AUP), that is mentioned in the essay is an important policy defined for a network, it defines what the acceptable usage of organizational resources is. The policy defines things, that are described in details, such as: sharing of passwords among users, installation of applications, copying data, levels of privacy on use of organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s resources and many others. The last topic that the researcher discusses is social engineering, that is a way in which human behavior is manipulated in order to acquire a desired objective, such as hacker attacks.
Friday, July 26, 2019
The Battle to be Top Dog PetSmart vs. Petco - Essay Example This created the popularity of the company and improved the customers trust in the benefit of the company. Handling competition is not an easy job and it needs committed resources of manual labor, system, and financial plan. Any trail off from a company would lead in decline of market share and profit. This made the Petsmart advance, widens its market thus included services such as, adoption, training, veterinary, grooming, day care, and more so pet hotel. . The article illustrates how Petsmart has vastly managed to strike equilibrium between being wholly alert on availability and pricing, which is highly vital in competing with strong merchandisers and looking into value added- services. The previous year the company groomed 7.5 million dogs, a 16% increase over the year before. It provided 378,000 training classes, another 16% increase. Overall, services are to generate $450 million sales this year, about 10% of the companys $4.5 billion total, but representing 26% annual growth since the initiation of the strategy in 2000. The structure of the company itself is a competitive strategy since it pleases the sight of the customer and the pet. For example, the inner dÃ ©cor was in blue color, decorated with brick and sliding to be attractive to the public. Petco uses a highly different approach compared to Petsmart. It Diversifies its market products Moreso for other animals not necessarily pets products. It recently introduced a Ã¢â¬Å"reptile rendezvousÃ¢â¬ . This Includes, the demonstration of products, and the photo contest. This strategy has improved its income since the effectiveness of the program pleases customers. Although petco has not embraced the services aggressively like Petsmart, it features grooming services and more so providing doggie day care at various locations. These Strategies have made it succeed thus withstanding the stiff competition from the Petsmart. Other sources say
Thursday, July 25, 2019
CRITIQUE - Essay Example I think comparative grounded theory was appropriate to achieve the purpose of this study. The author used 15 homeless adolescents, who were interested into self-care. All participants were asked two questions: 1) What helps you maintain healthy living as you do, 2) What would you like to tell me about how you take care of yourself? The interviews, behaviors, physical appearance and gestures of participants during the interview were recorded, analyzed and compared to within and between them by comparative grounded therapy.The descriptive theory of self-care for homeless youth was generated from this study. The descriptive theory linked three categories: becoming aware of oneself, staying alive with limited resources, and handling oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own health. The theory supports OremÃ¢â¬â¢s conceptualization of self-care that personal care of human beings can be modified by self-awareness, environmental conditions, the effect of medical care and other factors. The homeless youths of this study were resilient, because they faced so many obstacles in their lives, but still showed courage to redirect their lives towards health, growth and development. In conclusion, our community is still in need of support groups, which can help homeless youths to develop self-care awareness and behaviors in a high risk environment (Lynn, 2003, p
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Interim Report ( for me ) - Assignment Example If you are still uncertain about the answer to any question please speak to your Dissertation Supervisor/Supervisor, Faculty Research Ethics Panel (FREP) Chair or the Departmental Research Ethics Panel (DREP) Chair. The risks participants, colleagues or the researchers may be exposed to have been considered and appropriate steps to reduce any risks identified taken (risk assessment(s) must be completed if applicable, available at: http://rm.anglia.ac.uk/extlogin.asp) or the equivalent for Associate Colleges. On this project I will be looking for the things which technology made them more easier for us. Like communicating, treating, traveling, etc. Also I will focus on the side effects of technology and the disadvantages of using it. I also will cover more parts about age of people who impacts of technology more than the others. What is technology ? how did it impact on our society? Did it make us more isolated and disconnected from each other? How did it change our life when we communicate, treat and travel? Are there any side effects on using technology? What are the advantages and disadvantages? Require the co-operation of a gatekeeper for initial access to the human participants (e.g. pupils/students, self-help groups, nursing home residents, business, charity, museum, government department, international agency)? By sending this form from My Anglia e-mail account I confirm that I will undertake this project as detailed above. I understand that I must abide by the terms of this approval and that I may not substantially amend the project without further
Analysys of the Story Tolstoy The Death of Ivan Ilyich - Term Paper Example The story begins with the death of Ivan that is announced to a group of judges in a private meeting over a case. IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s close ally, Peter announces the death to the group that immediately thinks of the induced opportunities for transfers and promotions. Peter develops similar perception though he is a little more touched by the death. On arrival at IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s house, Peter finds Schwartz, who is equally unaffected by the death, and Schwartz proposes a game later in the day. Peter is however emotionally touched and he notices an expression of fulfillment and a sense of warning, to those who are still alive, on IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s face. IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, through her interaction with peter is equally concerned about money than her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s death (Tolstoy, p. 1- 8). Chapter 2 Ivan is presented as an introvert who keeps more to himself. He joins law school where he allows external forces to manipulate his ideologies. He however identifies particular characters whom he emulates as he grows up and he is more specific to allow influence from higher social classes. Upon graduation, Ivan is employed in the civil service in which his career develops through a series of promotions. He meets Fedorovna whom he later marries out of convenience due to his peerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions. The marriage however fails to work out and Ivan resorts to spend more time in his work. His inability to take control of his life and that of his family is depicted, as he is not able to make personal decisions. His conflict resolution ability is also weak as he fails to identify and solve the problem with his wife during her pregnancy and later in life. This consequently escalates to ruin stability in their marriage. Ivan therefore represents a section of the society that is controlled by ex ternal forces and is not able to make decisions over their own lives. His middle ground however depicts him as a moderator between two extremes of life (Tolstoy, p. 10-14). Chapter 3 Selfishness and greed becomes a major theme as Ivan distances himself from the society around him. His selfish attitude is noted when he loses his temper for failing to secure promotion in his career. Unable to cope with frustration at the work place that had created a rift between Ivan and his colleagues, he resorts to quit his job and only changes his mind after his friend is promoted in the ministry and secures him a better position. The culture of nepotism and favoritism is therefore depicted in the scene. This can be understood from two perspectives. Either the former administration discriminated against Ivan and promoted other persons against merit, or the newly appointed friend of Ivan offered him a position against merit. Similarly, social stratification is exhibited in the story through IvanÃ¢â ¬â¢s behavior after his new appointment. He tries to make his new house to a standard that he has wished to live in. Though the standard is beyond his means, he goes beyond this to be in the particular class of house. Ivan also hosts people of a particular social class, an indication of a stratified society. The concept of social instability continues to run through IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s family, as he is not able to manage his family life and appropriately combine it with his work (Tolstoy, p. 16- 22). Chapter 4 Death and detachment from life is also eminent in the literature. This covers both real death and symbolic death. IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s diagnosis that worsens his attitude signifies his death to the world around him. He loses touch with his family who thinks that he is intolerable. Similarly, the treatment that Ivan receives from his doctor and his colleagues signifies a symbolized death. The society has therefore lost interest in him and is waiting for his physical death that does not ev entually take them by surprise. IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation from the society can however partly be explained by his poor relationship with people (Tolstoy, p. 22- 27). Chapter 5 IvanÃ¢â¬â¢s condition worsens and brings his attention to the fact that he is facing death. He realizes that
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
What are the benefits of globalizing processes How the international relations are affected by this - Essay Example The concept is oversimplified and exaggerated (Scholte, 1). This is because the term globalization has diverse concepts of which five can be distinguished. As the first one, globalization can be defined from the internationalization perspective. It indicates economic and trade relations between different countries. It refers to flow of capital investments as well as movement of people and ideas between countries. The second concept of globalization which is liberalization refers to removal of trade and border restrictions in order to promote free trade among countries. With this concept, amalgamation of international trade relations is generated. This kind of globalization can be actually seen in reduction and in many cases abolition of trade obstructions, visas and capital controls. Then there is the third concept that relates globalization with universalization. It can be defined as spreading of ideas and cultural experiences to people in every country to promote a common perspecti ve of culture in global humanism. This concept is becoming more common with globalization of automobiles, Chinese restaurants, cattle rearing and so on. The fourth concept of globalization is modernization; it is a radical concept that spreads the notions of modernism like capitalism, industrialism, individualism all over the world. This process essentially destroys the prevalent cultures and regional concepts. This concept of globalization is evident in the imperialism of McDonalds, Hollywood and CNN. A fifth approach that has defined globalization is respatialization. It includes restructure of social borders with a growing transplanetary relation with people. Under the fifth concept, social space can no longer by defined by territorial borders and distances (Scholte, 16-17). The benefit of globalization is very often a debatable issue wherein the major concern is the conditions of the developing third world countries. With the advent of globalization, some argue
Monday, July 22, 2019
A Defense of Abortion Essay Thomson argues that in some though not all cases, women have a right to abortion due to property rights in regards to their body, and the undue burden against these rights that would be placed on women if they are to be made responsible for any and all pregnancies. Thomson uses a variety of sometimes strange analogies to make her point that even if we give in to the argument that a fetus is a person, and thus has a right to life, this right to life does not necessarily ensure a right to sustain that life by using another personÃ¢â¬â¢s property, in this case the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s body, against her will. Thomson first asks us to consider the following case. You wake up and find yourself in a hospital bed hooked up to a famous violinist. It is then explained to you that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been kidnapped by the Society of Music Lovers because you happen to be the only person whose blood type is compatible with the violinistÃ¢â¬â¢s, who is suffering from a kidney disease, and will die unless you remain plugged into him for nine months. Keeping in mind that both you and the violinist are innocent parties, and that both you and the violinist will walk out of the hospital alive and unharmed when the nine months are up, are you morally obligated to remain connected to the violinist, who in the case of pregnancy would be the fetus? First we must consider the given analogy and its relativity to the primary scenario, being the morality of abortion. There are no other cases quite like pregnancy, where oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to sustain life is directly dependent on the use of anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s body. This is why Thomson must create the violinist analogy. There are surely many similarities between the case of the violinist and the case of the fetus. As stated before, both parties, the fetus/violinist and the mother/donor are innocent. The cause of their connection is based on the actions of a third party, in this case the Society of Music Lovers. The fact that the donor was kidnapped presents a distinguishing factor, allowing the analogy to be applied in cases such as pregnancy because of rape, where it is clear that the mother did not consent in any way to becoming pregnant. There are also dissimilarities. The kidnapping itself has not traumatized the donor, while in the case of a young girl being raped and becoming pregnant, the rape itself is very traumatic. However, Thomson discounts this by saying that if those who oppose abortion based on the grounds that a personÃ¢â¬â¢s right to life is more important than a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s property right to her body, make an exception in the case of rape, they are saying that those who come into existence because of rape have less of a right to life than others, which sounds somehow wrong. Furthermore, many who oppose abortion on this ground do not make an exception for rape. Thus, the primary question remains, is it morally permissible to disconnect yourself from a person, even if doing so will kill them? Thomson then takes the violinist scenario a step further, asking us to imagine that it turns out that supporting the violinist is putting additional strain on you, and if you continue to remain plugged into him, you will die. Some would say that it is still impermissible, because unplugging yourself would be directly killing the innocent violinist which is murder, and always wrong. Thomson vehemently denies that you are obligated to sacrifice your own life in order to save the violinist, saying that in this case Ã¢â¬Å"if anything in the world is true, it is that you do not commit murder, you do not do what is impermissible, if you reach around to your back and unplug yourself from that violinist to save your life. Ã¢â¬ (Vaughn, 175) Many of ThomsonÃ¢â¬â¢s other analogies deal with the concept of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s property rights to her body making a case for abortion being permissible. She gives the analogy of a young boy being given a box of chocolates, and eating them before his envious brother. Of course the boy ought to share his chocolates with his brother, as most of us would agree. However, Thomson claims that if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t, he is simply being selfish and greedy, but not unjust. He is not unjust in denying his brother the chocolates simply because they were given to him, and thus are his property. If the box had been given to both of the brothers, it would be a different story. Distinguishing between what one ought to do and what one is morally obligated to do ties back to the violinist analogy. Even if the violinist only required use of your body for one hour, while you ought to allow him to use your body, as it requires little effort on your part, you are not unjust if you refuse. You are perhaps callous and selfish, yes, but not unjust. As Thomson states Ã¢â¬Å"Except in such cases as the unborn person has a right to demand it-and we were leaving open the possibility that there may be such cases-nobody is morally required to make large sacrifices, of health, of all other interests and concerns, of all other duties and commitments, for nine years, or even for nine months, in order to keep another person alive. (Vaughn, 181) The criticism I would make of this argument is that she does not specify in which cases the unborn person has a right to demand use of a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s body, only that they can occur. She does clearly state however, that having a right to life does not inherently give one the right to be given the use of or allowed continued use of anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s body, even if one needs it for life itself. (Vaughn, 178) Some who oppose abortion argue that because pregnancy is preventable, if one happens to become pregnant they must take responsibility, which gives the fetus special rights that a stranger, such as the violinist would not have. Thomson points out that this theory only gives a fetus a right to a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s body if the pregnancy resulted in a voluntary act, leaving out instances of rape. She uses the people-seed analogy to further discuss the implications of holding women responsible for all pregnancies. She asks us to imagine people as seeds, innocently drifting around the world, sometimes even into your home, getting stuck to furniture and carpets. To prevent this from happening to you, you put the best screens on your windows you can buy. As we all know, sometimes screens are defective, and a seed finds its way in and takes root, despite your preventative measures. Does that seed have a right to use your house to develop into a person? It is true that it could have been prevented from taking root if you lived your life in a house without furniture or carpeting, but this seems ridiculous. By the same token you could say that women who are raped have a responsibility to the fetus because rape could be prevented by never leaving home without a reliable army, or never leaving home at all. This is far too high of a burden to put on individuals. When evaluating these analogies and the argument Thomson uses them to make, certain questions arise. For example, if I am not morally obligated to give my property to someone who depends on it for survival, is it morally permissible to let someone starve to death because I refuse to share my food that I bought earlier from the grocery store? Given her analogies, such as the instance of the boy who refuses to share his chocolate, it would seem that Thomson would say that it is permissible to let someone die of starvation. After all, you are not morally obligated to share what is rightly yours. She would say you are selfish and greedy, like the little boy, but not unjust or immoral. However, letting an innocent person starve to death, when doing something as little as giving them some of our food, does not sit well with the average person. This is where ThomsonÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of the Good Samaritan vs. the minimally decent Samaritan comes into play. In the biblical story, the Good Samaritan saw a man dying in the road, abandoned by others who passed. He cleaned the dying manÃ¢â¬â¢s wounds and took him to an inn, paying for his stay. He went out of his way to help someone in need, at some cost to himself. Thomson illustrates the other extreme by using the case of Kitty Genovese, who was murdered while thirty-eight people stood by and did nothing to help. In this case the Good Samaritan would have rushed to her aid, putting his own life on the line in order to save a strangerÃ¢â¬â¢s. While Thomson seems to say that this is too much to ask of people, and they are not morally required to risk their own life to save anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s, she does say that the Minimally Decent Samaritan would have at least called the police. Because no one even called the police, they are not even minimally decent Samaritans, and their actions are monstrous. While the Good Samaritan gives aid they are not obligated to give, the Minimally Decent Samaritan fulfills their minimal obligations. Just as watching a person be murdered and doing absolutely nothing to help is falling below the standard of minimally decent Samaritan, I would have to believe that watching a person starve and doing nothing to help is also monstrous. After all, using ThomsonÃ¢â¬â¢s analogies we could say that the people who watched Kitty Genovese get murdered ought to have used their cell phones to call the police at the very least, but being that their cell phones are their property, they can use them as they wish, and are not morally obligated to use them to save a life, even if the cost it would bring to them seems extremely insignificant. Thomson seems to distinguish between situations such as letting someone starve to death because you refuse to share your food, or letting someone be murdered because you refuse to use your phone, and aborting a fetus. She claims that many laws prohibiting abortion compel women to be Good Samaritans (Vaughn, 181) as opposed to minimally decent. This claim suggests that she believes that harboring a fetus is an act of a Good Samaritan, not a minimally decent one. Furthermore, by calling the people who watched Kitty Genovese die Ã¢â¬Å"monstrousÃ¢â¬ it suggests that she does in fact believe that watching a person die and doing nothing to help is immoral. By these tokens, it seems that she would in fact view letting another starve as immoral, suggesting that her argument of property rights is inconsistent. Thomson somewhat accounts for these inconsistencies in her closing argument, simply by conceding that the analogies she uses are not fool proof or meant to be applied to all cases. She states Ã¢â¬Å"while I do not argue that abortion is not impermissible, I do not argue that it is always permissible. There may well be cases in which carrying the child to term requires only minimally decent Samaritanism of the mother, and this is a standard we must not fall below. Ã¢â¬ (Vaughn 182) For example, she believes it would be immoral for a woman to abort her child late in the pregnancy because she had a vacation planned. By asserting that her analogies and arguments are not meant to make an absolute case for or against abortion, they do in fact only help her to prove her somewhat tentative point that women do have a right to abortion, in some though not all cases, because of property rights and the undue burden against these rights that would be placed on women if forced to carry all pregnancies to term.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Ideas of feminism and free love Since time immemorial women have been viewed as the weaker sex, and so, over the centuries they have had to fight for each and every right they deserved as humans to lead a happy and content life. Men have always viewed themselves as superior to women and claim that even nature intended it to be that way as they are naturally physically more powerful. But they forget that it is a woman who gives birth to a man and that is how nature intended it to be for eternity. Men have tried and have been able to not only make women but also their desires slaves over the centuries. Woman was seen as a commodity and to the horror of the civil society still is in many parts of the world. She still has no complete right over her body, mind or soul. This paper intends to talk about the right of a woman over both her body and mind through the Free Love Movement. Sexuality has been a taboo topic in most of the societies around the world and it is viewed as shameful to even bring up the thought that women can have their own desires related to sexuality. In many orthodox societies, women even today are synonymous with the word honor and the talk of rights for them is seen as foolery. But over the centuries women all around the world and many men also, have realized that this patriarchal world would never hand over rights to women and so these feminists have to take up the fight for their rights whether social, economic or political. In this debate over rights comes the right of a woman over her body and how and what she wants to do with it which finally gets attached to the bigger subject of feminism. This fight of the feminists is very much entwined with the Free Love Movement and has played a huge role in giving momentum to the mo vement over the years and around the world. INTRODUCTION: Charles Fourier in this famous essay originally published in the 1800s talks about women and their degraded status: Is there a shadow of justice to be seen in the fate that has befallen women? Is not a young woman a mere piece of merchandise displayed for sale to the highest bidder as exclusive property? Is not the consent she gives to the conjugal bond derisory and forced on her by the tyranny of the prejudices that obsess her from childhood on? People try to persuade her that her chains are woven only of flowers; but can she really have any doubt about her degradation, even in those regions that are bloated by philosophy such as England, where a man has the right to take his wife to market with a rope around her neck, and sell her like a beast of burden to anyone who will pay his asking price?Ã Ã He further goes on to talk about the double standards of different nations towards women though these nations are seen as highly moralistic but in reality even they have treated their women as slaves according to him. He states that even the English legislation which is highly respected and is seen as highly moralistic is also prejudiced against women. It had given rights to men but had degraded the women. Even the French are no less different from their British counterparts and treat their women in the same biased way. Eventually, the slavery is the same for the women, no matter which country she belongs to. Hence, there is no justice for women anywhere. Likewise, he points out that there was not much difference regarding the status and rights of women in both the civilized and the savage (as the oriental and African countries were referred to by this term) countries. He elaborates by mentioning the different countries like Japan and china. He was of the view that all the nations which give their women the highest level of freedom are the best in the world. Japanese according to him were the most industrious and bravest but in contrast to other nations were also highly indulgent towards their women. Their women enjoyed a respectful place and even the Chinese went to Japan to enjoy the love that was forbidden in their own country due to their hypocritical customs. He further elaborates by giving examples of nations both civilized and savage which supported the fact that a nation can only develop if it respects its women. He argues that both the Tahitians and the French are placed really well off and are also highly developed due to the respect attached to women. Likewise, he also believed that the nations which subjugated their women turned out to be the most corrupt. Maybe, they faced a deficiency in their moralistic standards as a nation which cannot respect its women is never able to gain any respect anywhere. Ultimately, he reached the conclusion which came out as a general thesis: Social progress and historic changes occur by virtue of the progress of women toward liberty, and decadence of the social order occurs as the result of a decrease in the liberty of women. Other events influence these political changes, but there is no cause that produces social progress or decline as rapidly as change in the condition of women.Ã Ã FEMINISM: The concept of feminism is an amalgamation of movements with the primary aim of defining, establishing and defending equal political, economic and social rights to women and ultimately resulting in equal opportunities for women. Though the main focus of feminism is on women but many feminists are of the view that as it aims at gender equality so, even men are a party to it, as many times due to sexism and due to fixed gender roles they also suffer. Feminism aims to free both the genders away and out of the cast of their traditional roles. Persons who practice feminism are known as feminists and can belong to either sex. Feminists over the centuries have fought around the world and campaigned for womens rights such as in contract, property and voting while also promoting a womans right to bodily integrity, autonomy and reproductive rights. They have taken a very strong stand against sexual harassment, domestic violence and sexual assault. For example, feminists groups in India have been for long raising their voice for change in the laws related to rape under the Indian Penal Code. Feminists have also advocated for equal rights for women in the economic sphere also as they demand equal pay and opportunities for careers and to start businesses which some constitutions like the Indian constitution have made a part of their fundamental rights. Feminism over the time period has been divided into three waves by the feminists and scholars: First Wave: It primarily refers to the movements fought all around the world for the right of suffrage in the 19th and early 20th centuries which were basically concerned with womens right to vote. Second Wave: This phase started in the 1960s and lasted upto the 1980s. It was basically concerned with the movement for legal and social equality for women as campaigned by the feminists in the women liberation movement. Third Wave: It is a continuation of and a reaction to the so called perceived failures of the second wave feminism and began in the 1990s. THE FREE LOVE MOVEMENT: Wendy McElroy in her article on free love very clearly has defined the aim of the movement. According to her the free love movement of the 19th century basically aimed at separating the state from matters related to sexuality like marriage, birth control and adultery. The individuals involved were the ones who should have a say on these matters and not the state as it concerns their personal lives and the state has no right as to dictate to people how to live. Many of the free love advocates were of the view that sexual laws were basically meant to discriminate against women and their freedom specially the marriage and birth control laws. They viewed sexual freedom specially the supporters of Josiah Warren and experimental communities as a clear, direct expression of an individuals self ownership.Ã Ã On the other hand Taylor Stohr and other revolutionary writers talk about the movement in respect to America: What was free love? The nineteenth century free love movement was a distinct reform tradition, running from the utopian socialist thinkers of the 1820s and 1830s through the center of American anarchism to the anti Comstock sex radicals of the 1890s and 1900s and from there into the birth control movement of the twentieth century.Ã Ã The times of the emergence of this movement were full of upheaval and change in the centuries old sexual conventions. The sexual relations between men and women were undergoing huge changes. The number of women living away from their families and having their own individual lives had increased dramatically. Things were changing for women within marriage as wellÃ Ã and they were now exerting their will to have their own individual lives as well. The changing scenario regarding the change in attitude of women towards their sexuality in America and to top it all there was observed an assertion of sexual freedom by women. The change in the pattern of sexual activity told the story very clearly during those times. Women in America had started having fewer pregnancies and child birth and that showed a control over their sexual activities. The free love movement was there to support these changes and bring about a reform and modernize these ages old emotional and sexual conventions which had made stiff rules of behaviour for both the sexes. Free love was more of an individualistic based movement. It emphasized on the happiness of the individual and not on social welfare. It viewed marriage as a union of love and appreciation between two individuals and not as an institution for reproduction. It was a reform which was bringing about self consciousness and it was both related to and still different from women right movements. Over the centuries, this movement has been only viewed by many as an anti-marriage movement. But on further study one realizes that the movement covered a much wider aspect. It was basically in opposition to marriage as a legal institute which made the advocates of this movement see the legalization of marriage as an attempt by the state to regulate the private affairs of individuals. The nature of the movement can also be defined as that of civil libertarian as it aimed to defend individuals rights in matters of sex and love. The movement aimed at encouraging healthy democratic public debates about sexuality, love and reproduction. It protested against any type of control over any of these matters by the state through experts. That is the reason why all the supporters of the free love movement stood together against the Constock laws which restricted the individuals from learning and talking about sexual matters to some select experts only. Our perceptions regarding the advocates of the free love movement may view them as pro sex but in reality it was not the case. The advocates of this movement totally denied that they were encouraging or supporting any kind of sexual promiscuity or a license to indulge. Indeed free lovers often claimed that they were working for a relaxation of external controls in order to produce a greater sense of sexual responsibility and personal control, a utopia of permanent, harmonious, monogamous true love.Ã Ã Still sex according to the proponents of this movement did not fall in the same category as sexual intercourse and it is neither on the same plane as sexual orgasm. Appreciation and encouragement of sexual expression not only for the men but also for the women was the basic aim of the free love movement to the surprise of many people. The movement supporters were of the view that sex not only had an important role in procreation but it could be viewed differently also. The possession of strong sexual powers is not to be deprecated, Victoria Woodhull insisted, in the face of cultural norms to the contrary. If superiority of any kind is desirable at all, let it be in the animal, since with this right, all others may be cultivated to its standard.Ã Ã There has been a huge debate regarding the movement being dominated by men or women. The movement seems to be a culmination of both. It was simultaneously male as well as feminist dominated. Many of the male leaders of the movement were unsuccessful in understanding the sexual needs and wants of the women though the free lovers claimed that womens stand regarding sexuality and their freedom was essential to bring about a sexual revolution in the society. The most notorious example of male arrogance in respect of sexual matters in the free love tradition was the utopian free love community in Oneida, New York, where an extremely radical, revolutionary and a promiscuous sexual practice had originated monogamy was absolutely prohibited and couples were broken up by the community itself- and all control was vested with the founder, John Humphrey Noyes. The male domination carries on in the history of this movement too as well cause most of the histories of the movement were written by m en and the irony is that these histories have not treated the women writers with equal respect and seriousness as the men writers such as Victoria Woodhull, and they made male concerns central to their writings and female sexual concerns such as contraception were put at the periphery. Instead of marriage based on external moral systems like organized religion and social convention, free lovers preached fidelity to ones self, or individual sovereignty.Ã Ã Individual sovereignty, literally self ownership, was the central doctrine of early nineteenth century American anarchism. The extreme ideology of individual rights which this represented was used as an economic theory and a political doctrine, but for free lovers, it also functioned as a theory of individual psychology, which had implications for sexual conduct. As an alternative to social codes and moral systems, free lovers argued for the importance of each individuals coming to understand his or her own personal laws, and recognized that these might vary from person to person. No two spears of grass, no two leaves are exactly similar, Mary Nichols wrote. I have wants of taste, of appetite, of being that are not yours. If I am true to the spirit, the informing life, I shall live very differently from you and your idea, your right.Ã Ã Since centuries women had been considered mens property and so the ideas of sexual self ownership and self definition were revolutionary in nature. Mary Nichols used the concept of individual sovereignty in an explicitly sexual way, to mean womens right to be sexually self determining, but she used it primarily in the negative the right to reject the sexual demands of men, including their husbands, unless the women themselves wanted to have sex. Nichols linked her free love ideas to the emerging womens rights movement of the 1850s; she was particularly impressed with Elizabeth Cady Stanton.Ã Ã Yet she grasped that her emphasis on sex distinguished her from them. The idea of self ownership has come to few women in different ages, to more in this than in any previous age, she wrote, still the number is very limited at present who recognize no authority but their own.Ã Ã FEMINISM AND FREE LOVE: After going through what does feminism and free love stand for one comes to acknowledge that both these movements are intermingled and to talk of one without mentioning the other would amount to blasphemy. Both the terms women liberation and sexual freedom carry with themselves huge connotations but it has been felt that though both project the way to a highly desirable way of life for women there has been much confusion regarding the interconnection between the two. Certainly any simple equation between the two womens liberation and sexual freedom ceased being possible some years ago, when modern feminists exposed the sexual revolution of the 1960s for what it was, a new set of imperatives on womens behavior, a compulsion to say yes that was as inhibiting as the injunction to say no. Since then, modern feminism has contributed its own premises to the politics of sexuality. The two most important of these are first, recognizing the degree to which sexuality and violence have conver ged in the heterosexual culture of our society; and second, asserting the possibility of sex between women and identifyingÃ Ã and criticizing what Adrienne Rich calls compulsory heterosexuality.Ã Ã The debates regarding sexual freedom and sexual happiness though have asked the questions and tried to find answers as to what sexual happiness is and how it can be achieved but always from a male point of view. It is high time that these questions were looked into from the point of view of women. As Linda Gordon has written Sex hating women were not simply misinformed, or priggish or neurotic. They were often rationally responding to their material reality. Denied even the knowledge of sexual possibilities other than those dictated by the rhythms of male orgasm, they had only two choices; passive and usually pleasure less submission, with high risk of undesirable consequences; or rebellious refusal.Ã Ã With the passage of time women realized that it is very much normal to have different desires from their male partners and their desires should also be respected in the same manner. On the level of political history, this feminist sexual revisionism has meant rediscovering the social purity and moral reform movements and reinterpreting them as womens collective efforts at sexual self defense.Ã Ã There is a need for searching for other aspects of the history of feminist sexual politics, in particular to discover if there is another tradition, running alongside moral reform and social purity, in which women tried to assert the possibilities of a different kind of sexual life for women, one that didnt involve their systematic subordination.Ã Ã The free love movement presents itself as the right movement to be studied in order to understand these aspects. Feminism itself was a collection of many things as pointed out by Ann Corthoys. She says that Twentieth-century feminism was many things: a set of ideas, a political and social movement, a cultural renaissance. It was a force for change and a guide for living. Feminism was the site of the reinvention of the category woman in the 1970s, and then of its deconstruction in the 1980s and 1990s. Now, at the turn of the century, after many years of involvement in feminism in all these aspects, one ponders at the meaning and future of the feminism that has helped shape our lives. In feminisms much-noticed episodic history, giving rise to the metaphor of waves, we seem to be at an ebb-tide. Something, the feminism of the last thirty years, has ended, and something else seems about to take its place. We live in an obscurely apocalyptic moment.Ã Ã There has been a notion in the olden times and specially when the church played a very important part in the lives of the common man that womans primary responsibility was not to her husband or to her children, but to God, as all souls were ultimately equal before God, though for their own benefit men have altered this notion totally. While it was true that St. Paul had said that wives should be subject to their husbands in this life, he had also said that there is neither male nor female in the Lord. And so, a new kind of woman emerges from the restless anonymity of the crowds, aloof from the sullen aimless excitement of the thousands that drift along the pavements and surge through the squares, a figure whose mystery and danger is that she is alone.Ã Ã Feminist theory emphasizes its critique insofar as it focuses on the subordination, weakness, and invisibility of women as part of a gender-based society. Feminism argues that a critique of gender socialization must begin from the perspective of women because general analyses of the human condition have tended to overlook womens conditions.Ã Ã The free love movement had a huge impact in America and though it was very much present in Europe also the American movement was much more aggressive and highly supported Marriage assumed a central place in the social vision of this new middle class. Writers and lecturers like William Alcott and Sylvester Graham offered a comprehensive view of sexuality and marriage, stressing personal purity and the quality of relations both during courtship and in matrimony. By the 1840s an ideal of true marriage had been formed that viewed the voluntary decision to enter marriage as the most basic of all social relations. The guarantee that a marriage was sound, and therefore a sure foundation for society, was both the character of those entering it and their love for one another. True love never varied, but bound two people together exclusively and for life. Spiritualists, who appeared at the end even gave love credit for binding people together eternally.Ã Ã As middle- class men and women came to view marriage as the root of all social relations, they also began to fear that its subversion potentially destroyed all of society. If something was wrong with marriage, as many Jacksonians believed, then all of society was at risk. By tracing the shift in perception during the late 1840s that led some members of the middle class to repudiate marriage we can gain a clearer insight into the social vision of early middle-class reformers and radicals. Those who doubted the legitimacy of marriage shared many of the assumptions of middle-class reformers of the period. Assumptions that derived from widely held middle-class ideals. These men and women looked upon individuality as an irreducible condition and feared institutions that limited individual autonomy, whether churches or governments. As we reconstruct the free love network that was formed to promote these beliefs we will see the connections between free love and other ante-bellum reforms, as well as free loves dependence on middle-class assumptions and values.Ã Ã The Free love movement had a positive influence and brought about reforms related to other aspects of life too. Many feminists and free lovers compared African slavery to slavery by marriage and raised their voice for abolition of both. They were of the view point that a woman can only gain equal status to a man after she is treated as an equal partner in marriage. Free lovers also supported vegetarianism and teetotalism. Free lovers believed that sexual intercourse would be less frequent within a free relationship because both partners would be free of the lusts engendered by the artificiality of marriage.Ã Ã The American movement ultimately did agree to the thoughts of Woodhull and other free lovers before her. Thus, her thought did turn victorious. From the mid-1870s on, the womens movement began to unite in opposition to the sexual ownership of women by men in marriage, and in defense of the principle of individual sovereignty, womens right to say no to sexual intercourse that they didnt want.Ã Ã By 1894, the conservative Christian moralist Elizabeth Blackwell, took the same stand as that of Mary Nichols forty years before, said, In healthy, loving women, uninjured by the too frequent lesions which result from childbirth, increasing physical satisfaction attaches to the ultimate physical expression of love. The prevalent fallacy that sexual passion is the almost exclusive attribute of men, and attached exclusively to the act of coition arises from ignorance of the distinctive character of human sex, viz. its powerful mental element.Ã Ã Though Victoria Woodhull was one of the biggest supporters of the free love movement but most of the respectable feminists were dead against her stand regarding the uselessness of marriage. The feminists also were unable to understand the willingness of the free lovers in viewing sex and reproduction separately pertaining to women. Though they agreed to and thought it necessary for women to have a say in choice and consent to intercourse, but they were equally committed to the confinement of sex within marriage.Ã Ã Closely-related to this was a reverence for motherhood and the power it could bestow on women, a belief which we have seen even Nichols and Woodhull shared. Many more conservative feminists hoped that once men ceased to destroy marriage with their excessive sexual demands, women should once again welcome intercourse with them, not for the sheer sexual pleasure of it, but as the fulfillment of their higher maternal duties. Few, even among feminists, could see that t he equation between female sexuality and reproduction was a historically specific achievement, and that the liberation of womens sexuality was a process that would not be reversed.Ã Ã Hence, we can see that the histories of both free love and feminism are entwined. From the late 18th century, leading feminists such as Mary Wollstonecraft have challenged the so called sacred institute of marriage and some of them have even gone further by demanding its abolition. The proponents of free love never viewed sex as a means of reproduction and so access to birth control was considered as a means to womens independence. The free love movement was even embraced by leading birth control activist like Margaret Sanger. Many of the leaders of first-wave feminism attacked free love. To them, womens suffering could be traced to the moral degradation of men, and by contrast, women were portrayed as virtuous and in control of their passions, and they should serve as a model for mens behavior.Ã Ã The free love ethics of the 1960s and 1970s can today maybe seen as a manipulative strategy against a womans right to say no to sex. Issues regarding contraception, marital emotional and physical sexual abuse and sexual education are the areas very much emphasized upon by the sex radicals and the right of the women to control her body. The radicals were of the viewpoint that talking about female sexuality would ultimately help in empowering women around the world. FEMINISM, FREE LOVE AND THE GLOBAL SCENARIO: Ultimately, one has to agree to the fact that even as women all around the world are fighting for their rights in order to live a dignified and happy life one cannot disagree to the fact that there is huge cultural differentiation around the world. What may seem degrading to an American for a woman may be totally normal for a woman of that part of the world. Though these movements fight for a just cause but lack of global homogeneity is one of the important factors because of which women have not been able to gain as much out of these movements as they could have. But one cannot disagree to the fact that these movements have brought about opportunities for women all around the world which were unseen and unheard in the past. Women over the past have been seen as depositories of cultural homogeneity and it is high time that this notion was done away with. It is sad in the very first place that women have to fight for their rights though I am sure god intended both men and women to be equal and live a peaceful life together but in reality the picture is far away from this utopian idea. But though this movement has brought about changes in the thinking of the individuals around the world, the concentration is more in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. Other nations of the world have lacked behind and even today the matters related to female sexuality and freedom are taboo in conservative societies like that of India. Though the educated class has still benefited from these revolutions and are quite free in matters related to head, heart or body but most of the other women still suffer from inequality in most of the spheres of their lives. It is ultimately the combination of feminism with free love that has brought about a positive change in both men as to respecting the wishes of women and in women as to voicing their needs and finally having the guts and confidence to walk out of the shackles and say no as and when they want to. But still, a lot of work needs to be done globally and it should be seen that knowledge about such movements should be made available around the world through the revolutionary writings of the supporters of free love. So women around the world can bring about a change in their own societies in order for a women to live a dignified life and the men to respect her as they respect themselves. CONCLUSION: After 1875, a lot of research still remains to be done on the participation and role of women in the free love movement. A large number of women had come forward and supported the movement during and after 1875. But as the number of women supporters increased so did the differences among them. Nichols and Woodhull were two of the biggest names of the movement. There were many more women who were equally passionate and supporters of the movement
Impact of Management and Leadership styles Managers are whoÃâÃ do things rightÃâÃ and leaders are whoÃâÃ do the right thing The general concept according to my understanding from various literature reviews are that Leaders leads people and managers manage all things in organization, furthermore to my concepts the important point is that leaders are the people who bring changes in organizations and managers may be considered as people who sustain the day to day organisational activities. The main point in this task 1, to explain the link between Leadership and management of an organisation, here I am elaborating leadership and management of Martin McColl, this organisation having approximately 1,000 outlets and 50,000 employees across United Kingdom, the main focus of the company is on Books, Cards, Magazines, Confectionary, Toys and Drinks etc. Link between strategic management and leadership: Orders which are passed down from leader and the managers role is to pass orders down the chain of command A leader is described as someone who has the capacity to create a vision, and to translate it into action and sustain it (Bennis, 1989), this statement can also be justified as there are differences between management and leadership, although functionally they can be combined in the same individual (John Kotter, 1990). Leadership without Easy Answers by Ronald A. Heifetz, According to In business, we see an evolution of the concept of leadership. For decades, the term leadership referred to the people who hold top management positions and the functions they serve. In our common usage, it still does. Recently, however, business people have drawn a distinction between leadership and management, and exercising leadership has also come to mean providing a vision and influencing others to realize it through non-coercive means. Roosevelt says about link between leaders and managers that People ask the difference between a leader and a boss, the leader works in the open, and the boss in secret. The leader leads and the boss drive. This report review explains the relationship between leaders and managers that they perform on their position within the organization, they work together to achieve the goals of organization. Leaders think about goals and are active instead of reactive in shaping ideas. Managers act to limit choices. Leaders develop fresh approaches to long-standing problems and open issues to new options. A manager is a problem solver- what problems have to be solved and what are the best ways to achieve results? Link between leaders and management has strong impact in organization. Managers Managers administer. Follow the established course. Ensure that people do things. Ensure that people do things better. Leadership Leaders innovate. Establish the course that managers follow. Ensure that people want to do things. Ensure that people do the right things. Ensure that people do better things. Source: international business-society management by Tulder, Zwart. Example in McColl: As I explained the literature review above, I am evaluating these literatures with the help of Martin McColl example. Martin McColl under the Steve Leadership management is very successful. There is a strong link between leader and management. Leader and managers keeps link through video conferences, mails and telephone. Meetings for internal discussions are kept to a set of guidelines intended to maximize productivity, and minimize cost, to achieve a result. Focus is on external parameters, particularly the customer and the image of the company. Priority in Martin is given always to activity that enhances the customer experience, improves efficiency or increases revenue and profitability. There is an enormous level of mutual respect built between the leadership group and the teams. People are appropriately motivated, and rewarded for their performance based upon their motivational modality. It is important to remember here, that not everyone is motivated by a monetary reward, or a standard trophy. A Truly Great Leader understands this, and uses to their advantage. On 28 Nov 2010 major snow fall hits Scotland. There were problems with many routes. Managers must come on time thats managers responsibility. On the day of snow martin McColl managers came on time in all branches while travel was very difficult due to the heavy snow but all managers reached on time and have done their work because it was not easy for anyone to come out house. So that was a great achievement under the best leadership. Managers are also leaders. Link between leaders and management has strong impact in decision making in organization and this impact effect in every place and every area in McColl such as finance, marketing, policies. Impact of management and leadership style on Strategic Decision: Decisions are at the heart of leader success, and at times there are critical moments when they can be difficult Organizations all over the world are deeply concerned with understanding, searching and developing leadership. Regardless of the type of organization, leadership is discerned to play a vital role in establishing high performing teams. Leaders are facing greater challenges than ever before due to the increased environmental complexity and the changing nature of the organization. The current era not only demands having a competitive edge and sustained profitability but also the maintenance of ethical standards, complying with civic commitments and establishing a safe and equitable work environment. Leadership is one of the critical elements in enhancing organizational performance. Being responsible for the development and execution of strategic organizational decisions, leaders have to acquire, develop and deploy organizational resources optimally in order to bring out the best products and services in the best interest of stakeholders. In short, effective leadership is the main cause of competitive advantage for any kind of organization (Zhu et al., 2005; Avolio, 1999; Lado et al., 1992; Rowe, 2001) Decentralised structure: In Martin McColl autocratic leadership style portrays that manager retains as much power and decision making authority as possible. These leadership styles utilize different sources of power and impact differently on the levels and extent to which staff consider them as making a contribution to organizational decision making. Both the quality and extent of staff participation in decision-making tends to wane. Each store ofÃâÃ McCollÃâÃ has a store manager who can make certain decisions concerning their store. The store manager is responsible to a regional manager senior managers have time to concentrate on the most important decisions. Collaboration with group members: Martin McColl leader makes decisions in collaboration with group members, often using majority rules or similar social decision schemes, whereas a consultative leader makes decisions, after talking with group members about their opinions. Empowerment: McColl managers tend to be more focused on productivity targets and achievement of objectives. Their power is based on their ability to achieve targets, often as a result of quick decisions. Decision making is a form of empowerment. In McColl stores Empowerment is increase motivation and therefore means that staff output increases. Knowledge skills: People lower down the chain have a greater understanding of the environment they work in and the people (customers and colleagues) that they interact with. ÃâÃ This knowledge skills and experience may enable them to make more effective decisions than senior managers. Faster Changes: Participative styles in McColl enabling departments and their employees to respond faster to changes and new challenges. Whereas it may take senior managers longer to appreciate that business needs have changed. 1.2 Example in Martin McColl: Martin McColl is UK based corporate company. Martin McColl has a democratic leadership where subordinates involve in decision-making. Company has a board of directors and Steve is a head of directors. ÃâÃ It is seen that Martin has authoritarian systems in which their people work as directed. Merger and acquisition continued in martin McColl. In 1998 Forbuoys acquired Martin Retail Group which was before RS McColl. In 1999 company launch new convenience concept McColls. In 2004 the company acquired Dillon stores. In 2005 company changed its name to Martin McColl Retail Group and now martin is the UKs leading neighbour retailing group. These changes allow leaders and managers to makes good decisions which give the strength to business. These changes brought many changes such as economic condition been changed, development changed, competition increased this changes brought new markets like stationery stores, specialist card shops. Furthermore supermarkets like Tesco and Sainsburys were selling everything that Martin did. So there was a big competition. Knowledge sharing and strong communication always been there so the strategy of Martin was focus on its core activities and increase, improving buying power sell higher margin items and makes their with sales of newer lines. Company have a wide variety of roles at two head offices in Scotland and Brentwood. Here company centralise core business divisions including Central Retail Operations, Trading, Marketing, Finance, Supply Chain, Business System etc. In all these above cases, management and leaders realized that changes were occurred and react actively. And in all these cases, they responded only when the competition forced them to do so. Conclusion: In making decision, consider the fit between leadership style and the characteristics of organization. Even more important, remember that things change. Look for flexibility. The very best leaders are those who have learned how to shift from one leadership style to another as circumstances demand. If one candidate shows evidence of being able to move smoothly among several of these styles, that may tip the balance. 1.3: Leadership style adaptation to different situation: Leadership style is the typical approach of a particular person used to lead people. Management theorists try to discover one best leadership style for all situations. Researchers say that there are internal and external environments that have significant impact on leader effectiveness. For example in limited external opportunities leaders are constrained by competition, legislation, technology, changing markets and limited resources when making strategic decisions. Fiedler (1967), who conducted extensive research on the situational aspects of leadership effectiveness, identified factors that determine what style of leader performed best. He examined correlations between test scores of leaders and their performance related to situational factors. The relations-motivated leader performs best where the leader position is not strong. Task-motivated leaders perform best when the leader-member relations are good and the leader power position is strong. The latter category represents poor member relations and a weak leader who is attempting to deal with a poor situation. B ecause that situation is unfavourable, Fiedlers model would require a task-oriented leader to keep the situation from falling apart. An obvious alternative would be to replace the leader. ÃâÃ To deal with the issue of matching style to the situation, Vroom and Yetton (1973) developed an approach that deals with leader-subordinate interaction. He recognized that an effective style depended on situational variables including the leaders expertise, the task structure, and the employees willingness to accept a solution. They found that the key elements in sharing of leader power are the maximization of technical effectiveness and subordinate motivation or acceptance. If technical effectiveness is not crucial and motivation and acceptance are not important, the decisions are made by the leader alone. On the other hand, if the technical difficulties are important but motivation is low, the leader attempts to obtain more information. When technical effectiveness is unimportant but motivation and acceptance are high, delegation becomes a useful approach. Finally, if the problem is high on the technical level and there is a need for acceptance, then the decision is shared with the group. The situational determinants of leadership show that there is frequently, but not necessarily optimally, a consistency in the behaviour of a leader when he or she performs in different situations. As the organization grows, team building and the exchange of ideas become more important. Involvement tactics are used more frequently. Now the organizational units are formed and the biggest question is how the work should be divided. This requires negotiation. Once the company is into production, tasks are more routine, but time is critical. This calls for more direction. Throughout, indirection, enlistment, redirection, and repudiation may be used. The tactics and when to use them are summarized in Table 2. According to Daniel Goleman six styles of leading have different effects on the emotions of the target followers and each style appropriately as the circumstances. Which are: Visionary leader, Coaching leader, Democratic leader, Affiliative leader, Pace-setting leader, Commanding leader. As Goleman provides a good framework of leadership styles so I can say that its absolutely true that no leader always leads in a particular style but adapts to situations. Few styles are there including Goleman styles, these styles are generally the most effective. Attached table 1. There are five basis of power Coercive power, Reward power, Expert power, legitimate power, and Referent power. These five bases of power introduced by French and Raven in 1959. Among the five bases of power there are three bases in which the Steve leadership is founded. These are legitimate power, expert power and referent power. Through his position he is able to lead the companys people. His experience in the company makes him very knowledgeable of the company and its customers. He motivates people and constantly empowers them. He is also charismatic. Example of Martin McColl: Employee Relationship: As a participating leadership in the past few years Martin performance and profitability have been transformed by employee engagement; which show a clear improving engagement and improving performance of employee. Martin engaged employees indicate they have a good understanding of how to meet customer needs. Individual employees in companies with strong engagement strategies described to us how their working lives have been transformed for the better. Customer focused strategy: Martin leaders have vision thats why they set objectives of company and have customer retention strategy for this they having promotional sale and delivering newspaper. Martin McColl customers are familiar with what newspapers and magazines in their local store and know the prices they normally paid. As a result, Martin delivering ordered newspapers at their home. Early experiments in began and, by the end of 2008, Martin was making 200 deliveries a week in an area a very small beginning. Ethical behaviour: McColl leadership thinking ethically and behaving ethically in UK thats why they are taking responsible decisions. They reduced to use of plastic bags. Martin corporate social responsibility is concerned with the ways in which an organization exceeds the minimum obligations to stakeholders specified through regulation and corporate governance. Martin negotiating better promotional prices from suppliers that small individual chains are unable to match. The product and service development processes of the martin have been substantially re-engineered, to facilitate better management of product lifecycles and more efficient delivery of wide ranges of products to customers. Product activity has focused on enhancing core ranges and introducing quality products. Martins innovative ways of improving the customer shopping experience, as well as its efforts to branch out into finance and insurance have also capitalized on strong brand reputation Financial Environment: Under great leadership a strong financial performance has been shown by the company over the years, which underlines its strategic capabilities. ÃâÃ According to Data monitor (2010), Martin is a Ã £ 30billion turnover company recording an increase of 14.9% when compared to 2008. The foremost strategy that has been adopted by the company is the product and services customization in accordance with the market demands. ÃâÃ The efficiency in performance of the company over the last decade can be summarised with the help of growth in following key indicators (Fame, 2010) Diversity: In the past, Martin approach to emerging markets has tended to be almost exclusively from their own perspective, seeing them simply as markets, with little real empathy for the new customers needs and desires. One of the big problems is that the vast majority of senior managers in corporations come from the home county but Martin Company and their leaders always ready to cope with such diversity at top executive level. Environmental factors: In environmentally as Martin entered into more and more partnerships or joint ventures many of which are formed with companies from different cultures. So leaders who are able to create and sustain such relationships give their company a valuable collaborative advantage. In my view, this relationship approach to business represents a major challenge to Martin. By senior executives Martin establishing good personal relationships in which trust and mutual understanding can develop. Corporate culture Founding Vision Company ways of doing things Values system LEADERSHIP STYLES Different Situations Employees relationship Customer focused Production Financial Environment Diversity Environmental factors A good understanding of situation trains leaders to change their style, like a driver changes gear in a car. Martins success had come, despite many siren voices, from persevering with its original model, and Bradley, the companys chief operating ofÃ ¯Ã ¬Ã cer, puts that down to the personal backing of Windsor, Martins low-key chief executive. One solidly based on experience, trust, and judgment. Conclusion Dynamic changing situations require different leader behaviours. These behaviours can take the form of patterns of behaviours termed leadership style, or leadership tactics. Selecting leaders with different leadership styles is inefficient. It is far more effective to select flexible leaders who have the capability of using different tactics under different conditions. While the leaders may occasionally learn to change their styles to suit the circumstances, leadership styles are likely to remain fairly stable overall. Therefore, a certain style affects the leaders/managers managerial decisions over extended periods, with a particular style being more effective under a specific set of circumstance. 2.1 Impact of Theories on organizational strategy: When we think about management and leadership, the image comes in our mind that these are powerful dynamic individual who commands people. Yesterday principles and theories are contemporary and sophisticated. Some overlap and gaps occurs. Current theories fill these gaps and after to study that people are dealing to current situation. There are many theories of management and leadership, these are defined as: Behavioural theory, Contingency theory, Functional theory, Great man theory, Situational theory, Trait theory, Transactional theory, Transformational theory. Major models and approaches are: Adaptive leadership and appreciative leadership Many leaders and managers have his or her own style. Some common styles are: Autocratic, Bureaucratic, Democratic, and Laissez-faire. There is a difference between theories and leadership models that leadership theory is an explanation of some aspect of leadership, these are used to better understand and control successful leadership and leadership model is an example for use in a given situation. Each one has strengths and weaknesses, and each one has its appropriate uses. Here I am selected two current management and leadership theories which are Transactional leadership and Transformational Leadership. Transactional and transformational leadership has been of great interest to many researchers in the current era. Adopting either transformational and transactional leadership behaviour helps in the success of the organization (Laohavichien et al., 2009). This might be the reason that different authors of the recent past considered transactional and transformational leadership as predicating variables and investigated their relatedness with other criterion variables. Both transformational leadership and transactional leadership help in predicting subordinates satisfaction with their leaders (Bennett, 2009) Transformational Leadership: Transformational leadership theory has captured the interest of many researchers in the field of organizational leadership over the past three decades. This theory was developed by Burns (1978) and later enhanced by Bass (1985, 1998) and others (Avolio Bass, 1988; Bass Avolio, 1994; Bennis Nanus, 1985; Tichy Devanna, 1986). The major premise of the transformational leadership theory is the leaders ability to motivate the follower to accomplish more than what the follower planned to accomplish (Krishnan, 2005). Transformational leadership has four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Bass, 1985). Burns postulated that transformational leaders inspire followers to accomplish more by concentrating on the followers values and helping the follower align these values with the values of the organization. Research has also shown that transformational leadership impacts employee commitment to organizational change (Yu, Leithwood, Jantzi, 2002) and organizational conditions (Lam, Wei, Pan, Chan, 2002). Due to its impact on organizational outcomes, transformational leadership is needed in all organizations (Tucker Russell, 2004). Transformational leadership identifying and developing core values and unifying purpose, developing leadership and effective followership, utilizing interaction-focused organizational design, and building interconnectedness (Hickman, 1997, p. 2). Transformational leaders work to bring about human and economic transformation. Within the organization they generate visions, missions, goals, and a culture that contributes to the ability of individuals, groups, and the organization to practice its values and serve its purpose (Hickman, 1997, p. 9). These leaders are reliable leaders who generate commitment from followers which results in a sense of shared purpose (Waddock Post, 1991). The leaders ability to inspire, motivate, and foster commitment to a shared pur pose is crucial (Bass, Waldman et al., 1987). According to Bass and Avolio, transformational leaders display behaviours associated with five transformational styles wich are attached in table 4. Organizational culture: According to Schein (1985, 1995), the leaders beliefs, values, and assumptions shape the culture of the organization and these beliefs, values, and assumptions are then taught to other members of the organization. Schein also stated that leaders have the power to embed organizational culture through various methods such as mentoring, role modeling, and teaching. Bass and Avolio (1993). Organizational Vision Transformational leadership has four components: idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Bass, 1985) which involves motivating people, establishing a foundation for leadership authority and integrity, and inspiring a shared vision of the future (Tracey Hinkin, 1998). Idealized influence and inspirational motivation are connected with the leaders ability to formulate and articulate a shared vision (Dionne, Yammarino, Atwater, Spangler, 2004). Transformational leadership creates a desire for people to work as a team, in an enjoyable and non-threatening culture, yet always with an expectation of excellence. It creates a How To approach to problem solving and development of new concepts, it allows for early warnings of imminent threats and weaknesses in the organization and strongly encourages celebration of strengths and aggressive pursuit of suitably qualified opportunities. Transformational Leadership is demonstrated from the highest level in the organization, and rewarded all the way through the management layers. It is charismatic, passionate and inspirational and attracts the very best candidates for available roles. Everyone in the organization clearly understands the culture, goals and expectations of the organization. Transactional Leadership: Transactional leadership is cantered on leader follower exchanges. Followers perform according to the will and direction of the leaders and leaders positively reward the efforts. The baseline is reward which can be negative like punitive action, if followers fail to comply with or it can be positive like praise and recognition, if subordinates comply with the intent and direction settled by a leader and achieve the given objectives. Four core facets of transactional leadership as described by Schermerhorn et al., (2000) are contingent rewards, active management by exception, and passive management by exception. Example of Bill Gates and Steve Jobs Leadership Styles: Bill Gates is a businessman, and chairman of Microsoft, the software company he founded with Paul Allen. Gates is one of the best known entrepreneurs of personal computer revolution. Steve jobs business magnate and inventor. He is well-known for being the co-founder and chief executive officer of Apple. Both have Transformational leadership style but both transformation styles have different impact on business in same industry. Bill Gates and Steve Jobs Leadership style: Bill Gates leadership is participative style because he involves his subordinate in decision making. He is a flexible person and he recognized his role was to be visionary of the company. Whenever needed he bring professional manager for managing and well structure of the organization? Gates is a strong and energizing person his enthusiasm, hardworkingÃ nature, judgment skills reflect his personality. His motivating power and involving his friends to working with him became the success of Microsoft. On the other hand, Steve Jobs leadership is autocratic style, because he centralizes the authority, he never given a chance to subordinate to involving decision making. He thinks that whatever he do is right. HisÃ relation with employees not good, he fails to motivate his employees in many times. Sometimes he acts as anti-Gates, and sometimes request Microsoft to develop software for his computer.ÃâÃ His cocky attitude and lack of management skills became a threat of APPLES succe ss. Bill Gates and Steve Jobs both gave their heart souls to developing their vision to develop personal computer,ÃâÃ but the way they choose was different from other. Bill gates develop computer language new Altair 8080 pc which became the foundation of Microsoft. Bill continuously develops two other computer languages. When IBM develops their first pc and which need operating system to run the computer,ÃâÃ Microsoft develops MS-DOS for IBM. Gates adopting the changes very fast that are his enthusiasm vision and hardworking give him the success. Gates always recognized him as a visionary he always recognize professional management, he decentralize authority to make organization structure better. On the other hand Steve Jobs started apple computer which is hard ware making company. His vision to develop computer with affordable cost and easy to use. When Bill offer the basic to jobs then he rejected jobs proposal and try to develop their own basic without knowledge of programming, he fail and accept license with Microsoft basic. Jobs play duel personality sometimes he oppose Microsoft sometimes request Microsoft to develop software for their operating system. Jobs force people to choose between Microsoft-IBM operating system and his MAC-operating system. Lack of proper management skills and relationÃ with employees became a barrier of APPLEs growth. Impact of Management and leadership theories on organizational strategy. With the success of windows, Office Application and Internet explorer Microsoft became a house hold name and Bill gates became as business genius. Bill Gates adopting the changes very fast his innovative mind all time busy to developing products. Recent Microsoft develops a number of products like smartphone with loaded Microsoft window.ÃâÃ On the other hand APPLE goes wrong direction in 1990s. Because Steve Jobs is very slow to adopting changes thats the main reason falling the market share. When Jobs realize changes is the only way to survive the market then apple develops innovative iMac which is internet friendly stylist computer.ÃâÃ After sometime Apple gains market. With the iPhone, Apple TV,ÃâÃ and name charges job co are setting a new course for the outfitÃ once knows only for its computer. The new name and device represent APPLEs strategic shift away from itsÃ origins as a personal computing company that has at point struggled both survive and to set the computing worlds agenda. 2.2 Leadership strategy that supports organizational direction: Transformational leaders also help in the acceptance of organizational change (Bommer et al., 2004) Transactional leadership style provides high satisfaction and organizational identification. (Wu, 2009; Epitropaki and Martin, 2005). Transformational and transactional leadership strategy support organizational direction in term of efficiency, reliability, innovation and adaptation, turnaround leadership etc. Efficiency: In apple company Transformational leadership more effective at creating and sharing knowledge at the individual and group levels, while transactional leadership is more effective at exploiting knowledge at the organizational level. Reliability: Computers are an important investment and in todays economy, more than ever, its important for consumers to know the reliability of the product they are purchasing. AppleÃâÃ reliabilityÃâÃ report, Rescuecom revealed that Apple scored the highest with 700 points, with Panasonic following in on its footsteps with a score of 489. In a descending manner, Lenovo, Toshiba, and HP were listed with scores cumulating 393, 299, and 184 points, respectively. Innovation: