Friday, May 31, 2019

Night Falls Fast Undertanding Suicide By Kay Redfield Jamison :: Essays Papers

Night Falls Fast Undertanding Suicide By Kay Redfield JamisonEncompassd with a thousand dangers,Weary, faint, trembling with a thousand fleshy tomb, amBuried above ground.-William CowperSuicide has long been interpreted, studied, and at many another(prenominal) times ignored. The existenceof felo-de-se and its whereabouts are not actually known. For the fact that no one knowsthe first person who intentionally walked into a blizzard knowingly that they will notreturn, or the first person who jumped off a cliff with intentions of not surviving. Nordo we know the first person who had the sudden urge to commit harm to oneself. Wedo not know this for the fact that the human mind is one piece of work and creationthat is still being misinterpreted today. These facts and many more are what KayRedfield Jamison, fountain of Night Falls Fast, Understanding Suicide, trys toconvey and express to the reader. She directs her facts and studies towards teenagersand young a dults who seek the knowledge of why people do such(prenominal) harm to themselves. Jamison expresses how the fact that what we do not know is what actually kills, alsohow suicide is one of the most unpublicized deaths, and the varieties of mental affectionthat plague the minds of so many to commit suicideJamison brings up the notion of how much we can determine about a person through heredity. We can determine if mental illness exists, if there is a history of impulsive and/or violent temperament and also the social class of a person. As stated It should not be necessary, at the end of a century so rich in literature, medicine, psychology and science, to draw arbitrary lines in the sand between humanism and one-on-one complexities. We do know though, what can drive a person to commit themselves to kill themselves to a certain extent. Such as romantic failures, economic and/or job setbacks, trouble with law or authority, illness, a situation that may seem to humiliate one, a nd so on. But the true meaning of why a person takes their life is only known to that person. As much history is known and as much of the personality of the person that is found out, the person dies divergence behind many who suffer throughout life not knowing why, and that is why what we do not know is what actually kills.Murder, homicide, shoot outs, drugs, and accidents all top to the world wide effects of News.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American :: Compare Contrast Sociological Boundaries

Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American more people would accede that the Irish have been successful in assimilating into American culture and the Native American has been unsuccessful. There have been many boundaries that both groups have encountered nevertheless they are more of a hardship for the Native American. These include Racial and pagan boundaries, Personal boundaries, sociological boundaries, Political and Economic boundaries, and geographic boundaries. Racial and Cultural boundaries are probably the hardest obstacle that Native Americans have encountered. These are the physical differences. The Irish are a group of people that declaim English. Since English is the content language of the United States and most people in America speak English, this was an obstacle that the Irish did not have to overcome. The Native Americans, however, did not speak English, so before they could function as a full member of society and get a good job they first had to mark how to speak English. The Irish are also for the most part a Catholic group. The Native Americans were not, this was another hardship for them. Most of the Irish customs were equal to those already organism practiced in the United States. Native Americans had customs that were very different. Another boundary that was harder for the Native Americans than the Irish was personal boundaries. Native Americans had little education thusly the Irish did, they also did not know English and that was another hardship they faced. Both Native Americans and the Irish started out working in spirited discover jobs, but the Irish eventually made there way out and into the white collar world. Native Americans still hold blue collar jobs. Sociological boundaries were another set of boundaries that both groups had to face. There were not many Native Americans left due to wars between individual tribes, the trail of separate and other equivalent walks to r eservations, and to disease. So there were not many Native Americans left to assimilate into American culture.Comparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American Compare Contrast Sociological BoundariesComparing the Assimilation into American Culture of the Irish and the Native American Many people would agree that the Irish have been successful in assimilating into American culture and the Native American has been unsuccessful. There have been many boundaries that both groups have encountered but they are more of a hardship for the Native American. These include Racial and Cultural boundaries, Personal boundaries, Sociological boundaries, Political and Economic boundaries, and Geographical boundaries. Racial and Cultural boundaries are probably the hardest obstacle that Native Americans have encountered. These are the physical differences. The Irish are a group of people that speak English. Since English is the national language of the Unite d States and most people in America speak English, this was an obstacle that the Irish did not have to overcome. The Native Americans, however, did not speak English, so before they could function as a full member of society and get a good job they first had to learn how to speak English. The Irish are also for the most part a Catholic group. The Native Americans were not, this was another hardship for them. Most of the Irish customs were similar to those already being practiced in the United States. Native Americans had customs that were very different. Another boundary that was harder for the Native Americans than the Irish was personal boundaries. Native Americans had less education then the Irish did, they also did not know English and that was another hardship they faced. Both Native Americans and the Irish started out working in blue collar jobs, but the Irish eventually made there way out and into the white collar world. Native Americans still hold blue collar jobs. Sociologi cal boundaries were another set of boundaries that both groups had to face. There were not many Native Americans left due to wars between individual tribes, the trail of tears and other similar walks to reservations, and to disease. So there were not many Native Americans left to assimilate into American culture.

Brainwash Training in the Army :: Personal Narrative Writing

Brainwash Training in the armyI never would have imagined I would leave the Army brainwashed. Everyone has the preconception that basic training would be kind of hard and that you would leave in shape. Everyone finds boot camp challenging, and the reward you get for completing it? You leave a brainwashed killer. I joined the Army National Guard while I was a senior in high school. I was tired of Bristol and my unfulfilling invigoration in Tennessee. I could not wait to leave and go far away from home and see what other places had to offer. In August I go forth for Ft. Jackson, South Carolina, a basic training post. There were a five or six of us that left from Knoxville by van to get there. We arrived virtually midnight. As soon as we stepped out of the van we were ushered into a room like cattle. There was already over a hundred people session elbow-to-elbow on the floor. This room was extremely small and overcrowded, but I managed to wedge myself between two people. Someone wa s standing behind a counter coition that we could not have weapons, drugs, pornographic material, and things for gambling with. After that, the people in charge, drills sergeants started yelling at us and telling us to get up and conk out out of the building. They ran us to another building. This building had our beds in it. We were told to go upstairs, put our things on the bunks, and come substantiate down. The drill sergeants said that we had one minute to achieve this and that fifteen seconds of it had passed. All of us darted up the stairs, knocking each other down, trying to make it back down in time. All of us arrived back down stairs to the screaming of drill sergeants. They were saying, Front leaning rest position move. Once the drill sergeants saw me they got really angry. I was honest standing there because I did not know what front leaning rest position was. One of the drill sergeants came over and began to verbally assault me, yelling, atomic number 18 you deaf? I said, FRONT LEANING REST POSITION MOVE I told him I did not know what that was. He replied that it was the push-up position in a very unfriendly manner.He said it was all right that I did not know what that meant, because I was another dumb inbred from Tennessee.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Aristophanes Agathon in Women at the Thesmophoria Essay -- Aristophan

Aristophanes Agathon in Women at the ThesmophoriaAristophanes and Agathon were peers in Ancient Greece. Aristophanes was the master of comedy, and Agathon was the master of tragedy. They traveled in the same circles and are present in the same works. In looking through the comic lens system at Agathon in Aristophanes Women at the Thesmophoria, the reader is presented with a portrayal of an effeminate man with a flair for the dramatic and a queenly attitude. Aristophanes Agathon is a comic character to be laughed at, a man that is more female than male. In looking at this view of Agathon, classic views of homoeroticism are brought up and Agathons reputation and character in the world of Ancient Greece is brought into question. How much of this portrayal is actual, and how much is Aristophanes use of comedy? much importantly, what is exposed in viewing Agathon in this light? In order to answer these questions, an alternate, non-comic view of Agathon must be looked at, which Platos S ymposium offers. By comparing Agathons portrayal in both works, views on Agathon and on Greek homoeroticism can be inferred. Aristophanes portrait of Agathon is not true to Agathons actual self, only if rather uses cultural stereotypes and dogmatism to gain laughs. Looking at Aristophanes portrayal of Agathon in both Symposium and Women at the Thesmophoria and in looking at the general manipulation given to Agathon in Symposium, a basis for this interpretation is created, allowing the modern reader a clearer look at Greek life. Three lenses are presented- Aristophones comic lens in his famous comedy, Aristophanes personal lens through his speech in Symposium, and Platos non-comic lens in Symposium, providing a wide range of views to be explored. Arist... the roughly cultured, the stereotypes of the masses were ignored.Through combining all three lenses, it is clear that Aristophanes portrait of Agathon is not true to Agathons actual self, but rather uses cultural stereotyp es and bigotry to gain laughs. Though Agathon was a womanly man in a long-term homo-sexual relationship, Women at the Thesmophoria plays on stereotypes, exposing the common Greek ideals of masculinity and homoeroticism. Through nevertheless exploration of Symposium, both with Aristophanes tint and without, it is apparent that Agathon was no one to be lampooned, but was rather an intelligent, well-respected member of the highest social circles. Women at the Thesmophoria serves as more of a lens into common Greek beliefs then a lens into Agathons character, showing that the comic lens of Aristophanes goes deeper culturally then it does personally.

Digital Television :: essays research papers fc

Digital TelevisionOn November 1, 1998 computer companies, television makers, broadcasters, and program suppliers fuddle made a transition from analog to digital television. When the FCC passed a law forcing the ne twainrks to change from an analog broadcast to a digital broadcast, all the above mentioned industries have been scrambling to get a jump on their competition. The picture and live qualities of digital TV broadcasts are the best on Earth. However, at this moment cost remains a big problem. You can spend anywhere from $6,000 to $10,000 at the present time (Booth 80). Once the cost is driven down over the next few years, the average citizen will be able to experience the advantages of digital TV.Digital TV will allow for a wider screen display, like those screens in movie theaters, and a sharper picture. What causes this perk is the fact that digital signals have a higher bit rate. This allows for more bits to be transmitted into the TV (cable, antenna, or satellite). The more bits a TV can transmit, the better the picture or screen resolution. The digital TV signal can carry as many as 19.4 megabits of data, which means a broadcaster can mix six-fold programs of varying bit sizes onto a single channel. Say youre watching a football game, since one camera view only uses up so many bits, you can select a different camera angle while watching the same game on the same channel. It is possible for a network, like NBC, to show two different programs at the same time on the same channel. Conceivably, if the president in on, you can watch regular plan programming.With the introduction of the digital TV, the introduction of WebTV is upon us. One will be able to surf the internet through the television instead of using their computer. That is how the computer manufacture is involved in the digital TV. What companies like Sony and Microsoft hope to do is combine the TV and PC into one unit. They believe they can diminish the lines between consumer electroni cs and computers. Ultimately, both(prenominal) companies would like to make things more convenient and interface both industries. This will force computer companies and television makers to get on the ball and compete with these two corporate giants.What will the transition to digital TV be like? Like any new radical product transition, the changeover will make do some time.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Galileos Work :: essays research papers

Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy. In 1570 his family relocated to Florence. Galileo pioneered "experimental scientific method" and was the first to use a refracting telescope to make important astronomical discoveries. In 1581, Galileo studied at the University of Pisa. There he became interested in the workings of science and concluded that the period (the time in which a pendulum swings back and forth) does not depend on the arc of the swing (the isochronisms).In 1609 Galileo erudite of the invention of the telescope in Holland. From the barest description he constructed a vastly superior model. Galileo made a series of profound discoveries using his new telescope, including that the dream has craters, valleys, and mountains much like the Earths terrain. He also was suitable to see four small lights orbiting around the planet Jupiter. He was then able to conclude that it too was moons. Galileo was also able to discover that the planet Venus h ad phases much like our Moon.As a professor of astronomy at University of Pisa, Galileo was inevitable to teach the accepted theory of his time that the sun and all the planets revolved around the Earth. Later at University of Padua he was exposed to a new theory, proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus, that the Earth and all the other planets revolved around the sun. Galileos observations with his new telescope convinced him of the truth of Copernicuss sun-centered or heliocentric theory. In 1610, Galileo published a book, The sparkling Messenger, describing his findings that supported the Copernican theory. Galileos support for the heliocentric theory got him into trouble with the Roman Catholic Church. He was forced to abandon his astronomical pursuits. But, Galileo retaliated by publishing a book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. This book cause more arguments with the church due to it were in Italian which was a direct conflict with the church. In 1633 the Inquisitio n convicted him of heresy and forced him to recant (publicly withdraw) his support of Copernicus. They sentenced him to life imprisonment, but because of his advanced age allowed him serve his term under house arrest at his villa outside of Florence, Italy. It was not until 1992 that the church publicly forgave Galileo. But due to the timeframe, the damage had already been done.

Galileos Work :: essays research papers

Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, 1564 in Pisa, Italy. In 1570 his family relocated to Florence. Galileo pioneered "experimental scientific method" and was the first to use a refracting telescope to make important astronomical discoveries. In 1581, Galileo studied at the University of Pisa. There he became interested in the workings of science and concluded that the accomplishment (the duration in which a pendulum swings back and forth) does not depend on the arc of the swing (the isochronisms).In 1609 Galileo learned of the invention of the telescope in Holland. From the barest translation he constructed a vastly superior model. Galileo made a series of profound discoveries using his new telescope, including that the moon has craters, valleys, and mountains much like the Earths terrain. He also was sufficient to see four small lights orbiting around the planet Jupiter. He was then able to conclude that it too was moons. Galileo was also able to discover that the planet Venus had phases much like our Moon.As a professor of astronomy at University of Pisa, Galileo was required to teach the accepted theory of his time that the sun and all the planets go around around the Earth. Later at University of Padua he was exposed to a new theory, proposed by Nicolaus Copernicus, that the Earth and all the other planets revolved around the sun. Galileos observations with his new telescope convinced him of the truth of Copernicuss sun-centered or heliocentric theory. In 1610, Galileo published a book, The Starry Messenger, describing his findings that supported the Copernican theory. Galileos support for the heliocentric theory got him into trouble with the Roman Catholic Church. He was forced to abandon his astronomical pursuits. But, Galileo retaliated by publishing a book, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief solid ground Systems. This book cause more arguments with the church due to it were in Italian which was a direct conflict with the church. In 16 33 the Inquisition convicted him of heresy and forced him to resign (publicly withdraw) his support of Copernicus. They sentenced him to life imprisonment, but because of his advanced age allowed him serve his term under house arrest at his villa outside of Florence, Italy. It was not until 1992 that the church publicly forgave Galileo. But due to the timeframe, the damage had already been done.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Healthcare Business Organization Paper

personal line of credit physical composition Paper Healthcare has drastically changed over the eld in the United States. As our population is growing in size, a shortage of the number of health care professionals is also growing. Entrepreneurs have greatly benefited the innovation of health care by assisting with creating more jobs, producing products and services to assist and meet the growing needs of the population, and starting saucily melodic phrase organizations to meet the needs of at onces economy. There are different forms of organizations and choosing the correct one is important, as it will affect the victory or failure of the business.Define the Different Forms of Business Organizations fillet of sole proprietorships are an individually owned business where the individual is entitled to all of the profits and also responsible for all of its debts, liabilities, taxes, and claims that may be do toward the organization. Partnerships are businesses started by 2 or mo re individuals. In this form of business each individual is equally responsible for the liabilities, management, as well as entitled to a portion of the profits. With the different knowledge and skills each ingredient brings to the business will increase the chance of success.Corporations are created by law and owned by shareholders. Rather than actual property, the owners own stock or interest. Through selling stock the corporation can raise the capital o serve well with establishing business and increase financial gain. According to SCORE Associations (2003), limited liability companies are a new and flexible business organization of one or more owners that offers the advantages of liability protection with the simplicity of a partnership, i. e. partners are not liable for business debts (Para. 3).Explain the Advantages of Each Form of Business Organization Sole proprietorships are the easiest to manage due to the nature of the business and it is also easy to close if needed. Pa rtnership businesss benefit by having shared duty in managing the organization and raising funds would be easier with multiple partners in the business. In corporations, according to Naol (2011), the shareholders can only be held accountable for their investment in stock of the company (Para. 6). However when debt raises it can be paid through the sales of stock.Some advantages associated with limited liability companies include creditors can not beguile the owners personal property, there is no double taxation, and health insurance can be deducted from the income tax. Explain the Disadvantages of Each Form of Business Organization Sole proprietorships place the owner at risk if debts outweigh the profits due to personal property world at risk because of the owner being responsible for all debt and liabilities. This form of business may struggle with the type of employees it draws due to personal funds needed to start the business.If the owner is not getable to run the business i t is at high risk of failing. In a partnership business because each owner is equally accountable for the liabilities each member will be held responsible for any negative actions by another partner. Because of diversity members may run into disagreements with the management or expenses of the business. According to Business finance (2011), The process of incorporation requires more time and money than other forms of organization (Para. 3). Taxes may be higher for a corporation, and there are more rigorous regulations to follow. A corporation may also be sued.Some disadvantages of a limited liability company are that owners are not allowed to have a wage and they must pay self-employment taxes. Define the Appropriate Form of Ownership for an Aggressive Entrepreneurial Firm According to Pullman (2011), the most appropriate form of self-possession for an aggressive entrepreneurial firm would be a limited liability business. An entrepreneur who is willing to take risks in the process of being aggressive would be willing to even risk personal wealth and property, which would lead to greater success than entrepreneurs who were not as willing to take such risks.Conclusion The main(prenominal) focus behind marketing and healthcare is business growth and financial gain, and the form of business used plays a critical role in the success or failure of the industry. Through knowledge of the various forms of business and their advantages and disadvantages will lead to the entrepreneur being able to make an informed choice of which business form will best meet their needs to produce a successful venture. References Business Finance. (2011). Types of Business Organizations Corporations. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http//www. businessfinance. om/books/startabusiness/StartABusinessWorkbook012. htm Naol, M. , A. (2011), Forming a Texas business corporation. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http//www. nacollawfirmblog. com/business-transactions/forming-a-texas-busine ss-corporation Pullman, J. (2011). How you structure a new entrepreneurial business matters. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http//www. streetarticles. com/entrepreneurialism/how-you-structure-a-new-entrepreneurial-business-matters SCORE Association. (2003). Common forms of business organization. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http//www. tulsascore. org/organization. html

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Historical Institutionalism Essay

Question 3 How does historical institutionalism go out governmental deviate? How does it envision the impact of organizations? Thelen and Steinmo share the common view among institutionalist scholars that historical institutionalism (HI) remains sticky when envisioning political change, even when political or economic conditions have changed dramatically (199218). Political change, then, according to Thelen, is centered on the concept of path dependency, or a framework of slow change dependent on the legacy of rules form and tested throughout history.In order to understand how circumstance kinds of external events and do workes are homogeneously to produce political openings that drive path-dependent institutional evolution and change, Thelen prioritizes an synopsis of critical junctures and feedback set up as two key reproduction mechanisms that engender foundations of institutional arrangements and political stability (1999388-396).Critical junctures demonstrate that causa l analysis is inherently place analysis (Rueschemeyer et al 19924 Thelen 1999390) in that sequencing and timing of political and economic development in historical context can influence institutional outcomes. Feedback effects are based on the idea that institutions are not neutral coordinating mechanisms but instead reflect, reproduce, and magnify particular patterns of power distribution in politics.Thus, political arrangements and policy feedbacks actively facilitate the organization and empowerment of certain groups while actively disarticulating and marginalizing others, creating distributional biases in particular institutions that feed back so that over fourth dimension, some avenues of policy become increasingly blocked, if not entirely cut off as decisions at one point in time can restrict future possibilities by sending policy off onto particular tracks (Weir 199218-19 Thelen 1999394).Thelen discusses four scenarios in which HI envisions political change, with the first three describing change as exogenous, characterized by Krasners framework of punctuated equilibrium in which institutions exhibit long periods of stability, periodically punctuated by crises that bring about abrupt institutional change, later which institutional stasis sets in (Thelen 199915). Broad socioeconomic changes causing previously latent nstitutions to become salient toward political outcomes, changes in the socioeconomic context or political balance of power producing a situation in which new actors pursue new goals within old institutions for different ends, and changes in outcomes as old actors assimilate new goals within old institutions are the three exogenous scenarios of political change. The fourth scenario of political change is endogenous in that political actors adjust their strategies to bear changes within the institutions themselves (my emphasis Thelen 199917).In this scenario, Thelen advances the energizing constraints framework for explaining change in t hat change can be a piecemeal process resulting from the long-term maneuvering of political actors within institutional constraints. HI envisions the impact of organizations by examining how an institution shapes individual preferences within the organization not only by shaping strategies but too the goals that the actors pursue. Because the individual is not completely de-linked from the institution, stasis and at long last continuity is achieved.Question 8 How is the chapter by Ken Greene an example of historical institutionalism? What light does it shed on the process of democratisation in Mexico? To what extent is his analysis specific to Mexico and to what extent (and how) can it travel to other cases? Ken Greenes chapter is an example of historical institutionalism because it stresses the splendour of legacy in political outcomes. One of the main tenets of his argument is that opposition parties were constrained by their own origins, at that placeby resulting in low appe al for voters to support them disrespect widespread dissatisfaction with the PRI (Greene 2007175).As Greene explains (ibid 175), the main yet subtle effect of single party dominance on partisan competition is the resulting rigidity in the challenger party organization that are slow to innovate in the face of new opportunities. The idea that challengers may fail due to the weight of the past rather than the more blatant aspects of dominant party power is one example of political stasis at work through the reproduction mechanism of institutional feedback.The political arrangements of institutional legacy promote and empower the dominant party while marginalizing opposition parties in a manner that, in this case, results in institutional stasis and continuing PRI dominance. The continuing dominance and institutional stasis of the PRI along with the political socialization of early elite political actors of opposition parties have both contributed to the slow process of democratizat ion in Mexico.Extreme and differing preferences of early elite actors created an extreme foundation of opposition institutions, resulting in both the PAN and PRDs emergence as time out parties and at long last their failure to unify around the goal of defeating the PRI with centrist strategies. According to Greene, the sequencing of party affiliation created a perverse outcome early joining party elites created niche parties in their own image that were constrained to the core. (Ibid 178) Thus, the status of democratization in Mexico at the time of this articles publication suggests a disconnect surrounded by extreme elitist opposition party actors and a body of voters who are presumably unified through centrist preferences. Although Greenes analysis is founded on country-specific evidence particular to this case, the lesson of PANs ability to move beyond its traditional core constituency and overcome its own intra-party rigidities and in some ways can be use to the Workers Party (PT) success in 2002.Like PAN, PT began as a highly ideological party and resisted the adoption of vote-maximizing measures for a fundamental amount of time. As hunter explains (2007 444), PT leaders were able to revise ideological rigidity in light of major changes in the economic embellish and growing institutional strength of the state and party system. The reassessing of their electoral standing, the PT became more electoral and behaved more like a catchall Brazilian party.The case of strategic adaptation and path dependence in Brazil was exemplified by Lulas strategy of layering, gradually negotiating innovation by placing new elements on top of constituted ones. Although this strategy bore little immediacy to the partys electoral prospects, subsequent and focused efforts of engagement in public opinion and marketing Lulas personal appeal constituted more concerted efforts toward electoral maximization. Question 9 What light does the piece by W. Hunter shed on the sexual intercourse weight of rational option vs. istorical institutionalism? Should we choose between them in analyzing a single phenomenon? Does it get too wishy washy to say that both rational choice and historical institutionalism are reflected in the evolution of the Workers Party? Both paradigms of rational choice institutionalism (RCI) and HI are important because of their ability to demonstrate a mixture political outcomes and also because neither paradigm can individually provide comprehensive explanatory analysis for political change.With the example of the PTs dynamic trajectory from 1989-2002, Hunter illuminates how political change happens on different layers. Hunter first presents the usefulness of the HI perspective in the nascent stage of the PT, noting the importance of the founding moment of an institution and further explaining founders proclivity to long-term organization building rather than short-term vote maximization (2007 446).Weyland (200270) advocates HI framewo rk in explaining institutional origin by critiquing RCIs inability to explain institutional origin because it conceptualizes institutions merely as rules of the game, not as actors in their own right. Hunter also indicates HIs overcompensation for continuity instead of change, thus revealing HIs limitation of strategic flexibility in political parties like the PT during its first years of inception.Later, in explaining layers of political change still oriented within the framework of HI, Hunter traces the economic and political constraints imposed upon members of the PT, and ultimately explains within the framework of RCI ho change happened quickly in order for the PT to implement exogenous mobilization and electoral maximization strategies. Thus, the case adopt of the PT presents a substantive example of how RCI is useful at explaining quicker and short-term change whereas HI is better at explaining how change happens in gradual and long-term layers.We should not necessarily cho ose between the two frameworks in analyzing a single phenomenon because there is an inherent value in diversity. As Weyland argues (200279), there is a need for theoretical pluralism and paradigmatic diversity and different frameworks make necessary and irreducible contributions to political analysis. Political outcomes and political change across myriad contexts and applications could benefit from diverse approaches given the very complex reality of the behaviors of institutions. This complexity, as Weyland argues, cannot be understood from one theoretical vantage point alone (Ibid 79).

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Juvenile Offender’s Right to a Jury Trial

This paper intends to answer the following questions 1) Should upstart offenders have a writingal right hand to a control board trial? and 2) Should each state make that determination? The legal finis (Amendment 6 and 14th) which addressed the issue will be briefly discussed as sound as part of the answers to the aforementioned questions. Should juvenile offenders have a constitutional right to a jury trial?Yes, juvenile offenders should be given a right to a jury trial (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ). Doing otherwise will be considered unlawful since this is a violation of the ordinal Amendment which covers the Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecutions (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ). The Sixth Amendment holds that an individual who undergoes criminal trial should be given a right to an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ).In addition to that, juvenile offenders should be given a right to a jury trial because whatsoeve rbody who deprives them of this violates the Fourteenth Amendment which involves the Rights Guaranteed Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ). Explaining nurture a jury trial is part of what is technically referred to as due process (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ). Also, equal protection is provided if a jury trial is given to the juvenile offender (FindLaw, 2008, n. . ).Should each state make that determination? There is really no need for each state to make such a decision because this is already covered the Fourteenth Amendment which involves the Rights Guaranteed Privileges and Immunities of Citizenship, Due Process and Equal Protection (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ). Here, it is clearly stated that No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privilege or immunities of citizens of the US (FindLaw, 2008, n. . ). This means that people are protected by the constitution and even their States cannot do anything to take this right away from them (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ). The same is true with a right to jury trial, it is not necessary that each State determines what their law will be closely this since whether States make a move or not, citizens are still protected by the constitution (FindLaw, 2008, n. p. ).References FindLaw. (2008). Sixth Amendment. Retrieved November 7, 2008 fromhttp// (2008). Fourteenth Amendment. Retrieved November 7, 2008 fromhttp//

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Us Gaap and Ifrs Difference in Income Statement

Income Statement Income statements present an ordered appoint, grouped by broad categories of tax revenues and expenses. The income statement begins with revenues followed by a list of expenses. U. S. generally accepted accounting principles and IFRS wants for the presentation of income statements are similar, with about important differences. *Other than separating revenues from expenses, U. S. generally accepted accounting principles provides little guidance about which items the unattackable must separately display or their order. IFRS requires, at a minimum, the separate display of revenues, financing costs (for example, interest expense), income tax expense, profit or loss for the period, and certain other items. *Both U. S. GAAP and IFRS require the separate display of items whose size, nature, or frequency of occurrence make such separate display necessary for accurately portraying performance. *Both U. S. GAAP and IFRS require separate display of items related to discont inued operations, a topic discussed in Chapter 14. *IFRS requires separate display of the portion of profit or loss traceable to the minor- ity (noncontrolling) interest and the portion attributable to the parent entity, a topic dis- cussed in more detail in Chapter 13. U. S. GAAP contains a similar requirement starting in two hundred9 for near firms. IFRS permits firms to present expenses by either nature or function although U. S. GAAP is silent on this issue, guidance from the Securities and Exchange heraldic bearing requires registrants to classify expenses by function. 4 REVENUE light Revenue recognition refers to the timing and measurement of revenues. Management applies the revenue recognition criteria of authoritative guidance to get back whether a given transac- tion meets the criteria and so forgets in recording revenues (and the related expenses). Reve- nue recognition is among the most complex issues in financial reporting.As of the writing of this textbook, U. S. GAAP contains over 200 pieces of authoritative guidance for recognizing revenues. The quantity and complexity of this guidance result from several factors. First, mis- reporting of revenues (either reporting revenues before the firm earns them or reporting non- existent revenues) is the most common form of discovered accounting fraud. 9 Second, firms often bundle products and services and sell them in multiple-element arrangements, and each element of the arrangement has the potential to result in revenue recognition.An example of a multiple-element arrangement is the sale of a machine with an extended five-year war- ranty, installation services, training for employees to learn how to operate the machine, and software upgrades as they become available. This bundled arrangement can contain five or more elements, delivered at different times, but with a single gross sales price. The selling firm faces difficult recognition and measurement issues in deciding (1 ) whether a given elem ent of the arrangement has separable revenues, and (2) when, and in what amounts, to recognize rev- enues for the separate elements of the arrangement.CRITERIA FOR REVENUE RECOGNITION As a general principle, under the accrual basis of accounting, the firm recognizes revenue when the transaction meets both of the following conditions 1 . Completion of the earnings process. The seller has done all (or nearly all) that it has prom- ised to do for the customer. That is, the seller has delivered all (or nearly all) of the goods and services it has agreed to provide. 2. Receipt of assets from the customer. The seller has received cash or whatever other asset that it can convert to cash, for example, by collecting an account receivable.The first criterion focuses on the sellers performance. Firms recognize revenues from many sales of goods and services at the time of sale (delivery) because that is often the point of completion of the earnings process, in the sense that the seller has tra nsferred the promised goods to the customer or has performed the promised services. Even if some items remain unperformed (for example, promises to provide warranty services and promises to accept cus- tomer returns), the seller can recognize revenues as long as the unperformed items are not too great a portion of the total arrangement with the customer, and the seller can easonably measure the cost of the unperformed items. 11 The second criterion for revenue recognition focuses on measuring the amount of cash the seller will ultimately receive. The exchange price between the customer (buyer) and seller represents the assets exchanged by the customer for goods and services, and provides the ini- tial measure of revenue.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Summary of the Lawnmower Man

Summary The lawnmower man The lawnmower man is a short layer by Stephen King. The lawnmower man is about Harold Parkette, who after an accident with his lawnmower and the neighbors dog, decides to sell his lawnmower. After a while the lawn starts to get higher. He decides to hire a lawnmower to do the lawn for him. He calls the firm Pastoral leafy vegetableery and outdoor service. Not long after a lawnmower shows up at his house. He is the usual type, he knows all to well. darn the lawnmower takes care of his lawn, he sits down whit the paper and a beer.A loud racketing roar awakens him from his thoughts. He rushes to the introductory lawn. He is greeted by a strange sight. The lawnmower is madcap itself, and the lawnmower is completely naked and is crawling on all four behind the mower eating the grass. Harold gets terrified by the experience. The lawnmower tells Harold that he isnt actually running(a) for Pastoral greenery and outdoor service, but his stereotype is Pan, who i s a apart of the greek mythology, he is the god of animals and wild.He is half goat halt human. The lawnmower man tells Harold that his boss is always looking for new recruits. Harold is frightened and goes to the phone to call the police, and tell what is going on. While on the phone with the police, the front door gets smashed and in comes the lawnmower with the lawnmower man behind him. The lawnmower man tells him that Harold made a mistake by calling the police.He gets closer to Harold, and Harold retreats to the kitchen while holding a chair in front of him. The lawnmower decides that its Harold turn to get lawned. Harold runs out of the door and onto the lawn. He trips over his own feet, and the last thing he sees is mower sharp blades which are green from cutting the lawn. The police arrives after the neighbors calls them, and all thats left of him is in birdbath, and the smell of newly cut grass is still in the air.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Marketing Plan New Product Essay

Titles Page No 1) Executive Summary 42) received selling Situation 5-6 3) Threats and Opportunities 6-9 4) Objectives and issues 9-13 5) Marketing Strategy 13-19 6) Action Programs 19-21 7) Budgets and Controls 21-23 8) References 24Executive Summary on climaxApogee is a shoe which is completely make from overage, un intentd soccer b anys. After using a soccer ball for quite sometimes it becomes unworthy to use. So people throw out the old soccer ball to buy a new one. But what they dont realize is how harmful this plastic tangible nominate be for our environment. To draw this job and also to make brand new merchandise we atomic number 18 going to produce trendy shoe from these unused soccer balls. These dress empennage be worn by the people of all ages. These argon also going to be stylish so fashion concerned people throw out feel attractive in them. Next comes the huge issue of environment safety. There ar many intersection points in the grocery store which be a ctually utilitarian only if there deathly for our environment.But this shoe is completely made from recycling old soccer balls. So it does no harm to our environment. In detail it works to protect the environment. The third issue is charge. People want to wear new and fashionable shoes. But most(prenominal) of them cant afford such expensive point of intersections. As apogee is made from old soccer balls it is really cheap to produce. So we can offer people new and trendy shoes at a minimum price. Reviewing all the features of apogee we can assertively say that this product is going to be popular, environment friendly and last but not the least inexpensive.Current merchandise situationWe argon planning to produce shoes from recycled soccer balls. In the current market people of all classes need shoes. They want more trendy & sturdier shoes. Furthermore people ar now more conscious about the environment they live in. So we call for this idea of making shoes from recycled so ccer balls keeping in mind the environment as well as the nodes both at international and internal level.Our customers In todays modern world there is a craze about sports, particularly about football.Soccer mania is here and everyone seems to be horseback riding high on the popularity wave. Everyone watches football now a days, so what if they could use a product that not only served their purpose but also denominate their love for the game and thats how we came up with the idea of making shoes from recycled soccer balls. Football is popular around theglobe , specially in europium and south america. As we are planning for a global dart of our product we leave behind concentrate particularly on these region. The youths of Bangladesh are quite provoke about sports and of course football, so we are developing our product keeping in mind their taste and preferences. We are hoping we can go global with our product after we are successful in making it a success in our domestic m arket. Market segmentation We are planning to divide our market on the differences of our customers trend,style and fashion.We bequeath develop these shoes for both boys and girls. For Boys and girls who are aged from 10 to 15, we testament asses their current demand for new shoes and also we leaveing customize them according to their needs. We lead use the same strategy for customers aged 16 and above. Thinking internationally, we whitethorn think about the international preferences of our global customers. We pull up stakes also give our customers the alternative to customize their product according to their need and taste.Current market competitors currently adidas and nike are dominating the sports accessories business by providing conjure of the art merchandises specially sports shoes. But what we want to do is we want to create an confirming image of our product by creating the ultimate soccer shoes that is easy and most importantly affordable for the customers. Furth ermore we are using recycling material to make this product that will also create a positive image. As they say first impression is the last impression and thats exactly what we are planning to do. We wan to make a global impact. probabilityWe cannot sustain our consumerist lifestyle without getting inundated by garbage and exhausting the earths resources. Solid exhaust disposal experts engage in an uphill struggle to contain this virtual avalanche of garbage we produce every day. It is apparent that digging a hole, a landfill, is clearly not the answer. Sooner or later, the waste becomes uncontainable and will spill into our farming areas, forests, and water sources. Here we book shown some opportunities of producing shoes from recycling football soccer Good raw materialAs football is an international game and it is produced for international purpose, we are getting almost best quality of product. If we recycle thesoccer and if we produce shoes from this waste material, ultimat ely we are getting good quality material for producing shoes.Less expensiveMany of we take a shit the tendency to buy pure leather shoes. sometimes we desire to buy but we step back when there is a question of money. If we use the useless soccer we will be able to smother the represent of soccer and so ultimately we will reduce the purchasing price also.Save animals lifeAs we are using football soccer as our raw material which people consider as wastage, we are helping our environment to keep sound. When we are using animal leather, animal lives are in danger. So if we use the soccer we will be able to protect the life and it will be environment friendly.Proper utilization of resourcesWe are using the proper use of resources which is also good for environment.Environment friendlyFootball is made with plastic, synthetic paper, leather and rubber. We know plastic, synthetic paper, plastic are discomposed material. When we get the utility, we throughout the ball in the dustbin that may causes problem to the environment. It may stick in the drain and can create problem in drainage system.Objectives and Issues of APOGEEMarketing plans are written documents that help us communicate our marketing efforts for the fol broken ining year. One of the most important split of the marketing plan is the objectives and issues section, which helps internal employees or external stakeholders understand the marketing goals.1. To save our EnvironmentOur main objective is to save our environment through recycling. We will prepare shoes by recycling footballs. In recent years, scientists have been carefully examining the ways that people ask the environment. They have found that we are causing post pollution, deforestation, acid rain, and other problems that are dangerous both to the earth and to ourselves. With the help of recycling we can protect our environment to some extent. Recycling is a process using materials (waste) into new products toprevent waste of potentially us eful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from land filling) by reducing the need for conventional waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production. When a football gets old and rusty, it has no use. We often throw it into the dustbin or somewhere else. It is polluting our air and land. With the help of recycling we can convert these footballs into shoes. We hope it will reduce air and land pollution and thus we can protect our environment.2. Sell quality shoes with low priceAnother objective is to administer quality shoes with low price. People now are very concern about quality and price. They want high quality product with low price. So we will sell high quality products with low price.3. Increase market shareAnother objective is to increase our market share. With the help of marketing strategy we can increase our market share. In this case we have to invest a lot of money in promotion and distribution of the product. We are expecting to increase our market share up to 10% in the next year.4. To be the number one in the existing marketOne of the most important objective is to be the number one in the existing market. For these reason we have to implement our market strategies properly which have been discussed later. Issues that can affect our objectives1. Environmental issue Environment means everything that makes up our surroundings and affects our ability to live on the earth. Today environmental issue is very important. There are many judicatures who are working to protect the environment. They are creating pressure on the companies. So we will sell environment friendly product. We will not use any synthetic leather or any other chemicals that may cause harm to our environment. 2. Health issue Today people are very health conscious. They want to know everything about the product. If they feel thatthe product they are using are not safe, they will not use the product. APOGEE shoes are really safe because it is a green product. We will not use any chemical product in producing the shoes.3. Social issue We have to work in our society. So we have some social responsibilities. We have to think about our society and produce products according to their needs and wants. We should keep a friendly relationship with the people of our community. 4. Child labor issue Another important issue is child labor issue. According to the labor act indemnity in 2006 child labor has been banned from all the industries. Showing respect to the law we will not use any child as our labor. 5. towering quality with low price issue People now are very concern about quality and price. They want high quality product with low price. So we will sell high quality products with low price. We will also give some discount to our customers.Marketing Strategy Of Apogee Introducing a new product to the market can be a challenging task for a business. No matter how much confidence you have in the order of the product or how unique it is, there are still things to consider before unleashing it on the public. The marketing concept of building an organization around the profitable satisfaction of customer needs has helped firms to achieve success in high-growth, moderately competitive markets. However, to be successful in markets in which economic growth has leveled and in which there exist many competitors who follow the marketing concept, a well-developed marketing strategy is required. Such a strategy considers a portfolio of products and takes into sexual conquest the anticipated moves of competitors in the mark.Customer Driven Marketing Strategies for Apogee Making strategy decisions need to be customer driven as your end customers are the ones who will be making purchase to our products and services. The topic of Customer Driven Marketing is how to divide up the identified market into meaningful custome r groups, pack which customer groups to serve, create market offerings that best serve fannyed customers and position the offerings in the minds of customers referred to market segmentation,targeting, differentiation and positioning. The reason for having customer driven marketing strategies is companies today cannot conjure up to all buyers in the marketplace. Buyers behaviors are difficult to predict, too widely scattered and too varied in their needs and buying rehearses. Companies must design customer driven marketing strategies that build the right relationships with the right customers. Why Customer Driven Marketing for Apogee In a nutshell, with proper application of a customer driven marketing strategy, the we can focus our efforts on meeting distinct needs of individual market segment & to target segments in which it can profitably generate and sustain customer value. It can indeed communicate & deliver the chosen position with its resources available for an effective strategic marketing plan. With a customer driven marketing approach, the company has clearer direction to maintain its desired marketing position on targeted market segment(s) through consistent performance & communications. Nonetheless, for bigger companies such as Unilever and P&G, they can offer complete range of products to serve all market segments to meet customers needs.We must divide up the measure market ,choose the best segments and design strategies for profitably serving chosen segments. This process involves market segmentation ,market targeting , differentiation and positioning .Market Segmentation As we are making shoes from recycled soccer balls and its for everyone ( Boys,girls,Childrens) we can divide our markets into 2 types 1. Customers Aged 10-15.2. Customers Aged 16 and above.Market Targeting Footwear sales have been falling in developed countries and slowing in emerging countries due to lower income levels and therefore, less spending on apparel and footwear . Consumers arefocusing increasingly on value for money, looking for simple, hard-wearing shoes that last . As children and young people are passionate about stylish shoes we are focusing them as our target market .Positioning We will make our shoes more attractive than our market competitors . We will sell our shoes at a reasonable price . We will give them longer lasting shoes and will guarantee them for a certain period. We will use our distinctive shoe logo or Brand name so that we can hold our market for a long time. At the beginning we will give advertisements to acknowledge them about our products .We will give discounts for our special customers .Our shoe logoDifferentiation We will serve our customer a different service compared better than our competitors on the following nates I. We will make our Shoes attractive.II. We will sell our shoes at reasonable price.III. We will give discount to our customers .IV. go forth give them guarantee for our products .V. Will take ord ers from customers to make customized shoes .Marketing Mix This section outlines how we will make strategies for separately marketing mix element of our Apogee shoes and how each responds to the threats , opportunities and critical issues .Product In order to outdo our competitors we will take specific strategies for our product .The strategies will be 1. We will make a variant of products on some specific categories such as for boys shoes ,Sandals , Sport shoes for girls we will make clogs ,lace ups, heel shoes etc. 2. We will ever so promise them100% best quality for our product . 3. We will follow Fendi ,DIESEL ,Armani , Burberry ,Moschino designs to make our shoes . 4. We will use clear shoe box, ,paper shoe boxes in packaging our shoes . 5. We will make it eco -friendly.paper shoe boxes plastic shoe box clear shoe boxPrice We will forever try to give customers good quality shoes at a reasonable price .For this we need to take some sort of incentives , they are 1. We will g ive price tag on each of our shoes.2. We will give 5% discount on our shoes at the starting of our business in order to get consumer attention on our shoes.Place 1. We will open our branches in firm and abroad. 2. We will try to open our branches in U.S.A , Canada , South-Africa .So we will simply try to make an influence on consumers to buy our product. 3. We will always try to sell the shoes that were produced first. 4. As shoes will be produced in Bangladesh we need to transport them across national boarder and in sept .We prefer to transport shoes to abroad by air and in home by our private transport . forwarding 1. We will advertise our shoes on newspaper, magazines , and on t.v. 2. We will open our own branch in home and abroad . 3. We will show the positive sides of our products such as its durability, comfort ability , up to date with latest designs and customer choices .ACTION PROGRAMESA Marketing Action Plan is a way of putting in place a structured series of activities to get a predictable result. Here are the basic steps1. Define the service we want to offer.2. Define our Target Market for the service.3. Define additional outcomes4. Plan the resources required5. Plan of greeting monetary PlanOur financial plan is based on receiving several loans to purchase/fabricate the production equipment, provide initial operating capital, and attest the customer value. We will achieve profitability early in the first year and due to the expected high growth rate, we will realize strong profits on sales by net year. APOGEE shoes are made with recycled soccer ball and produced in fair-trade factories. We also sell only to independent retailers intercontinental in order to cycle money back into local economics. Our hope is that people with similar philosophies will be inspired by our experiment in grassroots capitalism and start their own business ventures. This company pretty much focuses on one thing recycled material. In making shoes, we use 80% recycled material and other things. Our principles underlie on low exist, but effective marketing strategies.BudgetingApogee develop and make use a effective reckon plan that will make sure to achieve expected profit rate. The following is an estimate of the sources of our principal costsCapital costs Land fees cost of special equipment and Cost of set-out containers.Operating Costs Labor Supplies Administrative and Overhead Truck Maintenance Fuel, Maintenance licenses, insurance, registration feesCost of ProductionWE will establish a minimum cost estimate for producing hoe. As we use the useless soccer ball for producing hoe the cost will not be high than using the material. Recycling less energy and generate less pollution than using less material. So here we have low energy cost.Promotion costOur budget include marketing cost. Because e need to advertise.issue pre release, and make calls to potential customer. We will determine the cost of each marketing element.Labor costIn Bangladesh , the labor cost is not high. Here at first e hire some labors who are expert in this work. We analysis that this cost will not exceed our budget. We will make sure that we can get maximum output from labor.Distribution costApogee first launch some testing product and when it reached at higher growth rate then it ill export it product to other country.ControllingApogee practice a constant marketing control process. First it set specific marketing goal. Then we will measure it performance in the marketplace and then evaluate the cause of any difference between expected and actual performance. Finally it takes corrective action to close the gap between it goal and it performance. This may require changing the action program or even changing the goal.(RESOURCES)Recycling Benefits A Recycling on scrap sources accessibility the disadvantage of access and a new Photos National Geographic

Free Space Optical Communication Essay

Free blank space optical communication is the most growing communication beca rehearse it is easy to interject and has a high speed because the signal is transmitted in the air. So that will introduce the atmospheric affect in the optical wave propagation. Atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the level of the received signal. So we need to study the effect and the assignation if we introduce a free space optical communication system with dual wavelength (980 nm, 1550 nm). Also studying the effect of turbulence when using cardinal different wavelengths.IntroductionFree space optical communication is a kind of communication that use wakeful propagation to send data amidst two points. Free Space Optics be open(a) of up to 2.5 Gbps of data, voice and video communications through the air, allowing optical connectivity without requiring fiber-optic cable or securing spectrum licenses. So we can use LEDs or Laser for transmittance data. Free Space Optics (FSO) engine room is relatively simple. Its built on a optical maser transmitter and a receiver to tender full duplex capability.Each FSO unit uses a high-power optical source, a lens that transmits alight through the atmosphere to some other lens receiving the information. The receiving lens connects to a high-sensitivity receiver via optical fiber. Because the transmission in occurred in air it is easily upgradable. FSO send a light reflect from one point to another using low power lasers in the teraHertz spectrum. This beam is transmitted by laser light focused on photon sensing element receivers. These receivers collect the photon stream and transmit digital data. If there is a finish off line between the two point FSO can ope put on a distance of some(prenominal) kilometers as long we involve a powerful transmitter.Features of the laser communications systemInformation normally in the form of digital data, data is entered to be regulated by the laser source tr ansmission electronics. Coding techniques can be used directly or indirectly depending on the type of laser used. Output source passes through the optical system in the channel. The visual system usually involves the transfer, beam shaping, and the telescope optics. Beam receiver comes in through the optical system and passed to the detection and signal affect electronics. There is also a terminal control electronics that must manage gimbals guidelines and other mechanisms, and machinery, to maintain and course of instruction the acquisition of the operating system designed in the mass of the process. In order to communicate, you must have received enough energy by the detector to distinguish signal from noise.Laser power, optical transmission system losses, pointing out shortcomings of the system, transmitter and receiver antenna gains and losses, receiver, receiver and loss tracking, be all factors that extract in the establishment of the receiver power. The required optical p ower is determined by data rate, detector sensitivity, configuration modes, noise, and detection methods. When the receiver is to detect the signals, it is in fact the decision-making regarding the nature of the signal (digital signal is direct when the distinction between the ones and zeros).There are two types of distributions one when the signal present (including the amount of photocurrent collect to the background and the current detector in the dark), and one when there is no signal present (including sources of no signal current only). A threshold must be developed to increase the success rate and reduces the error rate. Even when there is no signal present, the fluctuation sources of no signal lead periodically to the threshold to be exceeded. This is an error stating that the signal exists when there is no signal present. Distribution of signal may also fall on the other side of the threshold, so any errors stating that the signal is going to meet even when the signal i s present.SecurityFSO systems work in the near infrared wavelength range slightly above the visible spectrum. So, the human eye cannot clearly see the transmission beam. The wavelength range is around 1 micrometer caliper that is used in FSO transmission. The arbitrateion of FSO operating systems with narrow beam in the infrared spectral wavelength is by faraway the more difficult. Small diameter of the beam is usually only a few meters in diameter in the target site are one of the reasons that assoil it extremely difficult to intercept the communications of the FSO. Intruder must know the exact origin or target of the infrared beam and intercept only within a very narrow angle of beam propagation. Intercept packets directly from the FSO networks between remote locations is impossible mainly because the beam passes through the air usually at a higher(prenominal) altitude than at ground level. Due to the fact that the transmission beam is not visible, and that any attempts to o bviate the beam can occur near the FSO point of access and the process of transition poses another obstacle. transport the signal from the location that does not fall directly within the path of light with photons of light scattered from aerosols, fog, rain, or molecules that may be present in the atmosphere is almost impossible because of the energy levels are very low use infrared through FSO process transmission. The main reason for the exclusion of this hap of intrusion is the fact that light is an ally and statistically isotropic in different directions from the path of the airplane pilot propagation. This specific mechanism keeps the total number of photons or the amount of radiation that can potentially be collected on the detector that is not placed directly in the beam path beyond the detection level of noise.Atmospheric turbulenceAtmospheric turbulence can destroy the performance of FSO systems. The changes in temperature and pressure in the atmosphere lead to changes o f the refractive index along the transmission path. These changes can make the quality of received signal fade and causes fluctuations in the intensity and the phase of the received signal. These fluctuations can limit the performance of the system. The atmosphere is a viscous fluid and it has two state motions 1) laminar (there is no mixing in the air molecules) 2) turbulent (there is mixing that creates eddies). Atmospheric turbulence can be physically exposit by Kolmogorov theory. The energy of large eddies is redistributed without loss to eddies of decreasing size until finally dissipated by viscosity. The size of turbulence eddies normally ranges from a few millimeters to a few meters, denoted as the inner overcome and the outer scale, respectively. So the index of refraction n is very sensitive to small scale temperature fluctuations (temperature fluctuations are combined with turbulent mixing). So, the index of refraction is the most important in optical wave propagation.B ecause it behaves care a passive additive. So the spectrum of index of refraction can be described by Kolmogorove spectrum n () = 0.033 Cn 2 -11/3 , 1/L0

Monday, May 20, 2019

Nature Versus Nurture: Humans Should Morally Become Vegetarians Essay

To many, it is very acceptable and patently innate that man include marrow squash in their common diet. This practice can be install historically and globally across many countries and cultures. It is undeniable that humans are omnivores and remove been for the past many millenniums. However, is consuming eye actually natural? What is acceptable whitethorn not be natural and may have become acceptable due to our environment and nurture, and it is important to distinguish between the two, as favourite acceptance does not equal to moral rightness.In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer argues that, as sentient beings have the ability to feel pain sensation and pleasure, they have sentience and hence, are subject to the equal moral outlay as human worlds. Therefore he claims that it is only moral that close to of us ought to opt for a vegetarian lifestyle. I agree with Singer on this claim based on the born(p) Law surmisal and with scientific proof that animals indeed have a sentience and also based on our natural physiological design.Singer argues that equality should not be limited only to humans and points out that beings with a sentience should be entitled to equal consideration of their interests (Singer, 1990), with sentience being the ability to perceive through the senses. This is perfectly reasonable as there is ethological evidence that animals do have sentience on some(prenominal) cases, such as sheep being able to recognize faces, prairie dogs speaking their own language.Furthermore, elephants bury their dead, gibbons take carry off of their elderly, and male bats babysit young bats that are not their offspring while their mothers are out hunting (Basile, 2005). These animals need not do these actions, as these actions are not necessary for their own survival, nor do their own progenys survival depend on them. However, these altruistic deeds fancy that animals do not merely act on instinct. Moreover, emotions are present in animals such as chimpanzees display excitement and joy when they are allowed out in the sun. Also, sadly, works of Dr.Donna Hara demeanor, a professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, show that maternal deprivation, abuse and total isolation are shown to cause severe trauma in infant monkeys (as cited in Weisberg, 2009). The Natural Law Theory states that good and right a direct function of the way things are naturally and the good of human comes from realization of what is natural (VanDeVeer & Pierce, 2003). This law also supports anthropocentrism with anthropo being humanlike, with regards to sentience. When this theory was proposed, it was thought that only humans had the capability of being sentient and put human as of most importance.However, since some animals are now proven to have sentience, and arguably, morals as well, should they not be entitled to their own rights and interests as well? One might argue that since some animals, such as clams, cannot be proven to have em otions or morals, and hence it is morally acceptable to harvest them as food. However, this channel contains a fallacy of ignorance and is equivalent to arguing the Moon emits lightsomeness before it was proven that in fact, it reflected the light from the Sun. Non-existence of an object should not be accepted simply because it has not yet been proven.Another objection to the equality of interests of animals may ensue from the natural state of the ecosystem humans are at the top of the food mountain chain and it is natural to release beings positioned below us. And since the Natural Law Theory focuses on humans capacities, tendencies and desires, it is morally elucidate to consume meat as human beings. This is yet another fallacy of ignorance to what is natural. In fact, researchers have shown that humans are physiologically designed to be herbivores, and according to Dr. T.Colin Campbell, professor emeritus at Cornell University and author of The mainland China Study, we have only started consuming meat around 10,000 years ago, which is recent in our years of evolution (as cited in Freston, 2009). Meat consumption is not essential for human survival and our omnivore tendency is out of choice, not of need. The anatomy of a human being is strikingly similar to one of a herbivores. Our not-so-sharp canine teething and molar teeth are designed to optimize not the tearing of meat, but the chewing and press of fibrous plants.Also, carnivores have very short intestinal tracts, which is approximately three times its body length. However, a herbivores intestinal tract is around 12 times the body length, and human beings are passing close to herbivores than carnivores. Also, humans lack the essential amino acids to properly digest meat and It is clear that gentlemans gastrointestinal tract is designed for a purely plant-food diet. (Mills, 2009). On a health perspective, meat eaters are found to be at a much higher risk of having intestinal genus Cancer and heart disesse than those who opt for a vegetarian or even vegan diet. Towell, 2009) Since being vegetarian ultimately benefits humans and therefore flourishes humankind, fulfilling the Natural Law Theory, one can come to reason that being a vegetarian is morally correct and most should follow this lifestyle. However, it should also be pointed out that in some cases, if the human is extreme deficiency of a substance such as the vitamin B12, and in that situation, meat contains enough of such substance that benefits the human in a much shorter time domain than choosing the vegetable alternative would, then the human should be allowed to consume meat for the sake of an utilitarianism view, as Singer supports.Since the interests of all beings count, the instant relieve of the human being leads to the yearner pleasure from not being sick, and would maximize the net worth of happiness. Therefore, it is morally accepted, so long that the animal sacrificed in this case is treated as humanel y as possible and with the least amount of pain inflicted upon it.Although we cannot deny that humans have more factual superiority, it does not mean we can abuse that indicator and forcefully consume animals against their will only to fulfill our unnatural tendencies and lust for meat. It is immoral to consume meat simply because years of nurture has made it seemingly acceptable and as a species with higher intelligence, we must(prenominal) take the responsibility to distinguish between nature and nurture, while ensuring the wellbeing of our moral equals and taking their interests into consideration.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Pro-Forma Statements Essay

B1. Analyze Simulation ResultsA budget is a financial intend which is expressed in real numbers, typically in monetary units, which set the expectations for the expenses the social club give recover to wee its goals, and trouble objectives. A good budget designs forecasts to determine what amounts should be utilise to urinate desire readiness and profitability. Budgets hindquarters be utilise to determine whether a non a process is working(a) effectively, whether or not changes in operations need to be made in order to reach goals, and can help solve problems forwards they amount and help reconstruct changes when necessary. Budgets argon important because they fork out a quantitative mment to establish goals, coordinate efforts and de break inments, and help to realize changes be postulate before problems occur. Budgets should be broken see into fragments (short term, mid-term, and long term) which will al suffering for more precise measurement of the triumph of a project, al gloomy for changes to be made before moving onto unexampled projects, and to expand on goals when appropriate.By set short term budget goals and stretch them it helps to ensure that the family is on pace to reach its long term objectives. Budgets need to be revised whenever they no longer useful for planning and function purposes. Anytime there are major changes in the processes or operations the budgets will trimively need to be revised. Budget figures should be measured frequently to ensure they are settle downness reason adequate to(p) and that the company is still on track to reach its goals. A Pro-Forma Statement is defined as a financial statements prepared on the basis of virtually assumed events and transactions that pay not yet occurred. (Ralph Estes).Unlike diachronic Financial Statements which use real scientific information and are establish on facts, Pro-Forma Financial Statements use assumptions to help forecast the future and allow for th e use of creativity and flexibility. Pro-Forma Financial Statements are similar to past Financial Statements in look and content, both use the same major financial statements including the income statement and the symmetry sheet, but the Pro-Forma Financial Statement allows for changes to be made in the volatile environment.Pro-Forma Statements are important because they impart the needed information to track progress towards goals. They are found on historic figures so they do provide realistic projections while still allowing for adjustments as needed. Typically a long collection of historic data is used to produce a Pro-Forma Income statement since the company I created was a start up our information was limited there was even more of a reliance on projections to complete my statements. In the first thread I had start up factory expenses of $430,000 and spent $120,000 on market research. I had gained $3,000 in beguile from a small deposit into a short term CD. I had investe d $1,100,000 for located plant capacity. Of the $2,000,000 of initial capital $547,000 was used for start-up expenses leaving the company with $1,453,000 in current assets.Important terminations had to be made during Quarter 1 in order to piss my projections and set my budgets and expectations. First I had to withdraw what ingatherings to manufacture. I wanted to look for ii segments which had some similar wants and pick up. By developing two products for two segments with similar wants and necessarily the hope was that I would be pay eat up later in salvage manufacturing embodys by utilizing customization of parts, decrease learn be, cut down on salary expense by having a gross gross gross revenue force that could be companionship adapted with both products, and would allow the company to provide breach service later on the sale. The decisions were all base upon the market research which had been do providing the wants and needs of the segments as head as the price willing to pay, the 12 month supplicate, and the study per city. By performing some honest calculations (i.e. price willing to pay X Demand / live to produce) I was able to make an inform decisions on the two products I wanted to develop, where I wanted to set up shop, the size of my sales force, as well as the amount of documenting to produce.I decided to manufacture two products which I felt met the needs of two specific groups. The first group was decided upon due to the quantity of the demand. I felt around this product I could repair reach my goal of utilizing an employee authorization strategy, being able to utilize work cells due to less technical processes and needs, be able to take advantage of customization of parts, and likewise be able to offer amend service after the sales due to increase employee knowledge of the product and the service needed. I decided to focus my efforts on the Workhorse and the Traveler markets. Both markets had similar needs and the products would only need to differ in portability. The market was large and although the desired price would be lower, the higher(prenominal) demand would help generate profit. The hope was to build the distinction of being the low price drawing card while still providing a reliable product and providing excellent service after the sale.By setting proper starting budgets and being able to adjust accordingly by utilizing the pro-forma statements I was able to make sound financial decisions throughout the simulation. I never had to use emergency loans so I was able to avoid that penalty and cost. By using the statements was even able to make small investments and earn some interest off of those funds. Being a startup company I was truly conservative with my investments so I could ensure I would not incur those costs. At the end of the 4th quarter my completion exchange respite was over 4 million dollars. This allows for great expansion and higher sales as well as the ability to invest more funds and take advantage of supererogatory interest income. Without the use of the statements and the budget it would not have been possible to monitor the spending and make informed decisions.The Pro-Forma statements and budgets were used to make decisions throughout the entire simulation. Each Quarter I began by examining the cash flow statement. This allowed me to make proper decisions found on the Firms solvency as well as my companys potential for growth. At the beginning of Quarter 1 I had $0 in my beginning cash balance. Thus it was necessary to sell plebeian stock. $2 million dollars were raised through the sale of common stock. It was very important to use my income statements, original budgets, and monitoring my balance sheet. $1.1 million of the funds would be used to invest in my fixed plant capacity in order to reach the needed takings levels. With the funds on hand I was only able to open 2 sales offices. I chose the locations based on the projected sales demand, the allotted funds in the budget, and the money left field in the cash flow. The two offices cost $430,000 to start up and would also cost a total of $220,000 per quarter for lease.After setting up the Plant capacity and the Sales Offices I had $470,000 dollars left. I still needed funds for Research and Development to ensure that I was reservation proper decisions and to help guide my decisions in future quarters. I decided to spend $120,000 on research and development. This left me $350,000 in excess cash. I decided to invest a portion of it but was careful using my Pro-Forma statements to ensure that I would not run into the cost of emergency cash loans. $200,000 was placed into a conservative short term C.D. which gain me $3,000 in interest income. The $3,000 and the excess $150,000 would be carried over into the next quarter.The same techniques were used every decision every quarter. Any time I made a decision it was based on my cash flow, income statements and d emand projections. Lessons were learned from these decisions, more funding into research and development needed to be used proto(prenominal) in the simulation. The result of the sorry planning led to the expense of products needing to be redesigned. The carry over equipment had to be s mature for salvage value and additional funding needed to be raised to develop the new products. With the proper products in place for the market demand the meshwork would have been much larger for my company.B2a. secure-in-timeJust in Time operations is basically a system which helps force problem solving and drives down start-up costs and inventory costs by initiating a pull system driven by consumer demand and reducing inventory to meet the customers needs only when the customer has that need. If the product is not available at the time of demand a problem is found and improvements need to be made. This is very important to any company but especially for a start-up company who really need to bide their cash flow to avoid any emergency loans and the cost and fees associated with them. In my projections I had to take into bill the demand of the segments in the cities decided to serve and make educated estimates on how much to produce based on those calculations.There were still questions which needed to be answered which led to less aggressive manufacturing would my advertising efforts get under ones skin the right message to my head audience? Would my choices on where to advertise be successful on reaching my target audience? Would my product designs and branding fit the needs of my customers or would new products need to be developed? The answers to these questions could lead to major adjustments to our entire process and if not done well could lead to an excess of unused inventory which would only be able to recover a small part of the cost it took to develop them.Estimates were made based on the projected sales demands of the markets. Fixed capacity, sales force d ecisions, and of public life inventory decisions were made based on these projections. The idea of trail was to have the perfect amount of inventory available to my customers at the exact time they needed them, with very unretentive cost from carrying over unused inventory. Proper use of a Just-in-time strategy could have saved me money and helped expand my companys growth. During the manufacturing process a Just-in-time strategy wouldve have uncovered the need to increase takings to meet my customers demand as the products were being pulled through the assembly process.The improper use of the JIT strategy resulted in a handout of 278 gauge II customers and 143 customers of quest II. The result of these lost customers was $578,453 in profit. By properly utilizing the strategy profits could have been even higher and future growth could have increased. Going forward it will be important to utilize the performance of the past year and make better decisions to provide for a bette r customer experience. Fortunately after the losses occurred decisions were made to make sure it did not happen once more throughout the simulation. A good Just-In-Time strategy would have allowed the mistakes to be caught prior to having to absorb the losses and the scurvy customer experiences.B2b. Lean OperationsLean operations work hand in hand with making J.I.T. effective. By definition lean operations are used to understand customers needs and then to stock and prepare appropriately based on said needs. In my project this was done by successful forecasting based on potential demand of the customers in the given areas and based on the chosen products. By basing our inventory on a lean operations focus the company will be able to decrease the costs of waste in its operations, both in unused inventory and the cost of storing excess inventory.B3. Applicability of Work Cells versus conventional Straight Line order An effective layout design strategy is important because the decis ion alone can help decide the efficiency of production as well as help to determine a firms warring advantage. How will the firm be looking to set itself apart? Will it be through differentiation, low cost, or response? Will the companys priorities focus on capacity, processes, flexibility, and/or cost, etc.? In its very basic form an effective layout design will improve efficiency by better utilizing space, people, and machinery, improving communication, improving inspection, and by allowing for flexibility. Work Cells are specially arranged groups of workers and workstations designed to make the production of a single product or group of related products more efficient by allowing workers to have more reach in the work area, allow for immediate inspection of complete product, fewer workers are needed, less work space, and promotes better communication between workers.Workers often accept the responsibility of building the product from start to finish in a more positive light beca use of the empowerment it provides and the specialized training and expanded knowledge. Work Cells are often in the shape of a U allowing for better balance and division of work. The U-shape also will take up more space on the floor than the Traditional Straight Line process method. A Traditional Straight Line process method is the old assembly line assembly process. Each worker is responsible for a patch of a product. That piece is then put together with new(prenominal) pieces and the final product is put together in a series of pieces. The assembly line relies on workstations to be balanced in the share of the work to be effective however the layout alone often leads to an unbalanced division of the workload. The pieces cannot be inspected until the finished product has been richly assembled by the varying teams, and communication and diverse learning is very limited.The assembly line approach also leads to the possibility of a bottleneck effect where total production can be l et uped by slow production from one of the work units. The advantages of the assembly lines are of course a less expensive and fast training process, more standardization of parts, and lower handling costs. The decision on which method to use was a difficult one. One of the reasons I chose the two products that I did was because of their similarities and the ability to use customizable parts. However another break to the success was the ability to capitalize on efficient inventory management and processing. Another key was employee empowerment through knowledge which would lead to better service and the ability to recognize and fix problems as they occur during the assembly process. With this being said I would implement a work cell assembly approach.B4. Decisions Involving stock-take solicitudeUnderstanding the relationship between inventory levels and customer needs is a critical part of any companys success. Too much inventory can lead to extra costs for the company in the fo rm of storage costs of unused inventory and the expense of selling off unused inventory at discount prices. Not having enough inventory can lead to poor customer experiences by not being able to meet the customers needs when needed. This leads to fewer repeat sales and poor relationships. In order for a company to have a low cost strategy they must master inventory levels.As discussed earlier I did not do a good job of inventory management and it cost me in the form of profits and customer merriment. The idea is to be perfect and I was far from it. I underestimated the increase in demand after improvements were made in product design and marketing. The result was having higher demand than inventory available. The miscalculations of potential demand cost my company through the simulation and it is very important to execute better inventory management decisions in the future to avoid such issues and losses in the future. My growth decisions were made properly in the form of additiona l markets, additional sales and service staff, and more fixed capacity capabilities. However, I did not make good inventory management decisions to match the growth demands.The idea of inventory management is of course to find the perfect balance of meeting my customers needs while limiting my costs in property costs and excess capacity costs. It was again necessary to utilize my pro-forma statements to monitor these expenses. The inventory needs were based on demand projections, marketing efforts, and the number of sales people hired. Since my company was a start-up company with little or no brand recognition it was important to find a conservative figure which would still fit the customers wants and needs. In the initial Quarter I chose to project demand at 100 units per sales person. I had say-so in my product in the first quarter and decided to leave 43 units of Venture and 32 units of Quest as carryover.The hope was not to run into issues of Sales lost and a loss of customers due to poor experiences. The problem I ran into was due to poor research and development the target market did not find either of my products desirable to fit their needs as they were. My confidence apace turned into an error in Inventory Management. The remaining units had to be sold at a rescue price ($846.40 for Venture and $870.40 for Quest). The set price on Venture was $2500 and Quest was $3200, the cost to produce Venture was $1667 and Quest was $1698. This was an enormous loss in potential profits for my company and better use of inventory management and of course research and development could have prevented it.The new products were produced that met the customers wants and needs and I decided based on the research which was provided and the history of sales I would be more aggressive with my inventory levels. The sales force was increased to 16 people in Quarter 3 with a demand per sales person of 148, and based on the success in Quarter 4 the sales people were increased to 25 people with an estimate of 225 units per sales person. Due to the increase in demand caused by the additional production more inventory would left at the end of the quarter.The recommendation was that inventory levels should be left at a range of 25 to 50 units of each product, but based on the confidence of sales I increased those ranges and decided to have 86 Venture II units and 64 Quest II units in inventory left at the end of each quarter. I had no mazed sales because of a lack of inventory and fortunately did not have to sell any thrown-away(prenominal) inventory at salvage prices. Costs did increase in Quarter 4 both in holding costs and excess capacity costs but the cash increases were more than enough to unfreeze the additional inventory.B5. Use of Specific Continuous Programs to Achieve Quality Assurance Goals.Having a culture which promotes fiber from top to bottom affects the company in many positive ways if it starts at the top it becomes a culture which then empowers employees and leads to better customer satisfaction. There are several different programs which help to measure timberland 1.) Continuous Improvement, 2.) Six Sigma, 3.) Employee Empowerment, 4.) Benchmarking, 5.) Just in Time (J.I.T.), 6. Taguchi Concepts and 7.) Knowledge of Total Quality Management (T.Q.M.) Tools. Every aspect of operations can be improved and of course the overall goal is perfection. The cost of defective parts and or systems can be dramatic for a company and difficult to recover. thus it is very important to have the proper programs in place to measure quality.I believe two Quality Inspection programs would have been beneficial for my company. It was very important to my company as well as my target customers for us to provide a quality reliable product and have the service in place after the sale for my customers. I believe by implementing an Employee Empowerment program I can help develop quality on both the production side as well as on the servi ce side.Employee Empowerment involves expanding the employees roles and responsibilities so that empowerment and belief is spread throughout the company from the highest to the worst level. By including such responsibilities to the lowest level there is a greater chance that defections or needed improvements will be both addressed as well as shared by the employees who are using the machinery and involved in the everyday operations of the company. With high morale and open communication lines the company should be able to reach the desired quality.The desired quality which the company will be seeking will be determined by using a quality program called Benchmarking. That desired quality will be what our products and services will look like at their very best. All other performances will be judged by comparing to this benchmark. A team will need to be assembled, benchmarking partnerships will need to be formed, data will need to be collected and compared, and improvements will need to be to try and reach our benchmarks. Our benchmarking efforts will analyze such important factors as percentage of defects, customer satisfaction rate, cost per unit, return on investment, customer retention, and response time.References1. Ralph Estes Dictionary of Accounting (MIT, Cambridge, 1981, p. 105)

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Function and Role of Law in Business and Society

Functions and Roles of Law in Business and rules of order Patricia Hackley LAW 421 April 15, 2013 C. J. Hughes Abstract A review of the Constitution, the flush of Rights and the Code of Conduct will be discussed for a better lowstanding of it role in agate line. Businesses throw operated for years but the interest lies in the development of and reasons for code of conduct with the Constitution and Bill of Rights identifying the rights of the companies and the people. harmonize to CFA Institute, Code of Ethics were first created in the 1960s.It is the result of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that promoted argumentationes to hire pair opportunity officers, to ensure compliance with the new law (A History of Business Ethics, 2012). The U. S. occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 enforced the mandates and the Environmental Protection Act forced businesses to internalize the terms of discharging toxic effluent (Ibid). In 1977, The U. S. Government enacted the Foreign Corrupt P ractices Act to control actions of U. S. corporations overseas as a result of a series of scandals involving bribery. In an attempt to address public outcry to fuck off out of South Africa, a group of U.S. companies adopted the Sullivan Principles. It was also hoped that South Africa would change collectible to these principles. By 1980, most companies in South Africa had started adopting ethical codes and training their employees (Ibid). The Responsible Care was developed as a result of a chemical disaster in India in 1984 and in 1986, the Defense Industry hatchway on Business Ethics and Conduct had written code of ethics, provided training to employees, established monitoring systems, divided best practices and became accountable to the public, due to defense contract irregularities.The 1991 U. S, Federal Sentencing Guidelines for Corporations provided incentives to corporation that incorporated ethical structures. If the ships company could show they had taken steps to addre ss the ethical behavior of the company, the fines would be reduced, if found guilty. The most evidentiary legislation to date is the 2002 Sarbanes-Oxley Act which was initiated as a result of scandals involving Enron, Arthur Andersen and other corporations.It requires CEO and CFO to evidence fairness and accuracy of financial takements and code of ethics for senior financial officers along with public disclosure. The linked verbalizes developed a voluntary Global Compact for Corporations, with over 1,500 companies worldwide joining, have nine manoeuver principles including labor standards, human rights and environmental protection. The Community Services Bureau, were I worked as a Site Supervisor, were governed by Federal, State and local laws, along with guidelines from our funding sources.We had annual Code of Conduct training and signing of a new amendment. Middle management and staff were members of the local union that provided arbitration, in the event of employee disput e, or settle a new contract. Now we are acquainted with the development of business ethical conduct, we can realise a correlation with the Constitution and Bill of Rights in the puzzle of function and role in business and society. The Constitutions Bill of Rights, which include the first ten articles in the Constitution, brings us to the established boundaries of jurisdiction.Congress, under Article I of the Constitution, has the power to regulate commerce, tax the citizens and commercial entities and the spending organisation funds, bankruptcy, patents, and copyrights and make all(a) laws necessary to carry out its powers under the Constitution. (Melvin, 2011). Under the Executive branch, the President carries out laws, the commander in chief to the armed forces and enters into treaties, pending Senate approval, and appoint national officers and judges, also requiring Senate approval.Under the Judiciary branch, cases and controversies are decided under federal jurisdiction. The Judicial Review is the ultimate judge of federal constitutional law under the U. S. unconditional Court. (Melvin, 2011). In 1803, the Court ruled that the Constitution was higher than federal and state statutes, the conflicts between the Constitution and federal or state law, the Court has the authority to strike it down as unconstitutional. This authority can be found under Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution.The standards established classifies these actions in three categories rational basis, intermediate-level examination or strict scrutiny (Melvin, 2011). The Commerce Clause enables Congress to regulate Commerce among several states. It conduct interstate highway commerce such as railways, vehicles used in shipping and articles moved in interstate commerce. The Bill of Rights First, Fourth, Fifth and Eighth Amendments are directly addressing businesses. The First Amendment guarantees the freedom of speech, press and the right to peacefully assemble.In business, the first amendment provides partial protection provided the speech is truthful and concerned a lawful activity State cannot limit the free flow of information to consumers. To address these concerns and others, a four-part test framework was created to decide if certain(p) regulations were constitutional commercial speech in advertising, with no political implications. If regulations were constitutional, they passed all four parts of the test. governmental speech has full First Amendment protection. The Fourth Amendment protects citizen rights to be untouchable in their persons, houses, papers and effects.To secure a search warrant they must demonstrate probable consume or if they have cause for administrative violations they must have an administrative warrant to gain access to worksites for compliance inspections. The Fifth Amendment protects individuals from organism compelled to be a witness against themselves. The business aspect of the Fifth Amendment allows individuals to rem ain silent during investigations and court proceedings. The 14th Amendment protects individuals from being deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law and includes restrictions and actions by state governments.The Due Process Clause has certain procedural requirements and that laws passed must be published for inspection by the public and be specific so the individual understands how the law applies. The Equal Protection Clause prohibits government from denying citizens equal protection of the law. It is interesting that the Bill of Rights has not been amended since it was established in 1866 and it continues to provide citizens with the rights, due process and establishment of laws to govern the ever increasing industry of business.Functions and Roles of Law in Business and Society References Code of Ethics & Standards of Professional Conduct. (2013). Retrieved from http//www. cfainstitute. org/ethics/codes/ethics/Pages/index. aspx A History of Business Ethics . (2012). Retrieved from http//www. scu. edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/business-ethics-history. html Melvin, S. P. (2011). The Legal Environment of Business A Managerial Approach Theory to Practice. Retrieved from The University of phoenix eBook Collection.