COURSE CODE 3050402 PG DIPLOMA EXAMINATION - JAN 2009 PGDCA COMPUTER talk AND NETWORK Time: 3 Hours Max.Marks:75 Section - A 9. expand ICMP? Internet aver Message Protocol (ICMP) be by RFC 792 and RFC 1122 is used for communicate error reporting and generating messages that have attention. The errors describe by ICMP argon generally related to datagram processing. ICMP solitary(prenominal) reports errors involving dismantle 0 of any fragmented datagrams. The IP, UDP or transmission control protocol form will usually take action institute on ICMP messages. ICMP generally belongs to the IP layer of TCP/IP merely relies on IP for support at the sugar layer. ICMP messages are encapsulated inside IP datagrams. ICMP will report the hobby network information: Timeouts Network over-crowding Network errors such as an unaccessible host or network. The ping didactics is also back up by ICMP, and this can be used to debug network problems. 19. a. Explain about over-crowding control? Congestion Control http://cnx.org/content/m13361/latest/ A technique for observe network habit and manipulating transmission or forwarding grade for data frames to keep traffic levels from sweep over the network medium. It gets its key out because it avoids network traffic jams.
 In Asynchronous Transfer trend ( aura) networks, congestion control schemes whitethorn be based on fields at nitty-gritty the ATM cell header (CLP, EFCI within the PTI) or may be based on a more school mechanism between the ATM end-system and ATM switches. The ATM fabrication has de veloped a mechanism based on prescribe cont! rol for Available Bit respect (ABR)-type traffic. In put together Relay networks, congestion is handled by the FECN, BECN and DE bits. What causes congestion? The assumption that statistical multiplexing can be used to mitigate the link utilization is that the users do not reach their point in sequence rate values simultaneously, but since the traffic demands are stochastic and cannot be predicted, congestion is unavoidable....If you want to get a nice essay, order it on our website: OrderCustomPaper.com
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